Prevalence of poliovirus vaccine strains in randomized stool samples from 2010 to 2018: encompassing transition from the trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine
Global eradication of poliovirus (PV) has previously relied on the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, in order to eliminate the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the use of OPV will soon be discontinued. Thailand has introduced inactivated polio vaccine since December 2015 and replaced trivalent with bivalent OPV since April 2016. To provide crucial surveillance data during this polio vaccine transition period, poliovirus shedding in stool was performed. A total of 7446 stool samples between 2010 and September 2018 were tested for poliovirus using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Approximately 0.44% (33/7446) of the samples tested were positive for PV. All positive specimens had more than 99% homology with the Sabin vaccine strain, based on complete VP1 nucleotide sequences. Although trivalent OPV use has been discontinued in Thailand since April 2016, PV type 2 could be detected in stool samples collected in May 2016 but has not been found afterwards. The use of bivalent OPV was able to reduce PV type 2 shedding in stools and could contribute to the reduction of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in Thai children.
KeywordsEnterovirus Inactivated polio vaccine Poliovirus Stool Thailand
We are grateful to the staff of the Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology for their technical and administrative assistance. This work was supported by The Research Chair Grant from the National Science and Technology Development Agency (P-15-50004), and The Center of Excellence in Clinical Virology, Chulalongkorn University, and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (GCE 59-009-30-005). The Rachadapisek Sompote Fund for Postdoctoral Fellowship (Chulalongkorn University) and Thailand Research Fund also supported this research through the Royal Golden Jubilee Ph.D. Program to Jira Chansaenroj (PHD/0196/2556).
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Conflict of interest
None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare.
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