Indian Journal of Virology

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 398–408 | Cite as

Nipah virus infection: current scenario

  • D. D. KulkarniEmail author
  • C. Tosh
  • G. Venkatesh
  • D. Senthil Kumar
Original Article


The emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 to April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. About 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007, both the outbreaks in West Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 %. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NIV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. The drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat urine or saliva containing NiV is the only known cause of outbreak of the disease in Bangladesh outbreaks. The virus is now known to exist in various fruit bats of Pteropus as well as bats of other genera in a wider belt from Asia to Africa.


Nipah virus NiV Henipavirus Fruit bats Pigs Encephalitis 



The work on Nipah virus was carried out under ICMR-sponsored Extramural Project (2007-05080) entitled ‘Development of diagnostics and zoo-epidemiology of Nipah virus infection in India’. The authors are thankful to ICMR and ICAR for providing facilities for Nipah virus work at HSADL, Bhopal.


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© Indian Virological Society 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. Kulkarni
    • 1
    Email author
  • C. Tosh
    • 1
  • G. Venkatesh
    • 1
  • D. Senthil Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.High Security Animal Disease Laboratory, OIE Reference Laboratory for Avian InfluenzaIndian Veterinary Research InstituteBhopalIndia

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