Indian Journal of Virology

, Volume 23, Issue 2, pp 215–225 | Cite as

Laem-Singh Virus: A Probable Etiological Agent Associated with Monodon Slow Growth Syndrome in Farmed Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon)

  • M. PoornimaEmail author
  • Y. Seetang-Nun
  • S. V. Alavandi
  • J. Syama Dayal
Review Article


Among the emerging diseases in shrimp aquaculture, monodon slow growth syndrome (MSGS) is a major concern in South and Southeast Asia. Shrimp farming in Thailand was severely affected during 2000–2002 due to MSGS, which caused an economic loss, of about US$ 300 million. MSGS is characterized by abnormally slow growth with coefficients of size variation of >35 %, that has impacted P. monodon production in Thailand. A new shrimp virus, Laem-Singh virus (LSNV) was identified to be associated in MSGS affected shrimp. LSNV a RNA virus of about 25 nm diameter is phylogenetically related to the insect-borne viruses in the families Barnaviridae, Tymoviridae and Sobemoviridae an important histopathological observation is exclusively noticed in growth-retarded shrimp. The LSNV infections have been confirmed in various organs of infected shrimp such as lymphoid organ, gills and nervous tissues by various diagnostic techniques such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in situ hybridization, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) and these tools are available for the diagnosis of LSNV. Recently, an integrase containing element has been identified in absolute association with LSNV in stunted growth shrimp. The transmission of LSNV through horizontal and vertical routes has been experimentally demonstrated. The known natural host-range of LSNV includes P. monodon and other penaeid shrimp. The putative RdRp gene involved in replication of LSNV was targeted for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing and appeared to be effective in a dose-dependent manner. Since the discovery of LSNV in 2006 in Thailand, it has been added to the list of viruses to be excluded from domesticated specific pathogen-free stocks of P. monodon and it has been recommended that shrimp farmers avoid stocking post larvae positive for LSNV to prevent MSGS in their farms.


LSNV MSGS Retinopathy ICE P. monodon 


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Copyright information

© Indian Virological Society 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Poornima
    • 1
    Email author
  • Y. Seetang-Nun
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. V. Alavandi
    • 1
  • J. Syama Dayal
    • 1
  1. 1.Central Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Centex Shrimp, Faculty of ScienceMahidol UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC)National Science and Technology Development AgencyPathum ThaniThailand

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