Photonic Sensors

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 248–254 | Cite as

Porous Silicon Based Bragg-Grating Resonator for Refractive Index Biosensor

  • Sourabh SahuEmail author
  • Jalil Ali
  • Preecha P. Yupapin
  • Ghanshyam Singh
Open Access


In this work, we have evaluated the biosensing capability of the porous silicon (PSi) based sidewall Bragg-grating resonator. The approximation of the quasi-TE mode full vector for the eigenmode calculation is performed using a full vector mode solver. The transmission spectra of the device are evaluated using the transfer matrix method. We have observed a shift in the resonant band for a change in the refractive index of biomaterial in the upper cladding region. The theoretical value of the bulk sensitivity is calculated to be 387.48 nm/RIU. The device is suitable for biosensing application due to its ability of interacting signal with the infiltrated analytes in the PSi waveguide core.


Biosensor evanescent field eigen mode 



The authors would like to acknowledge the mutual understanding for joint and collaborative work among researchers from Malaviya National Institute of Technology Jaipur (India), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia), and the Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam).


  1. [1]
    S. Balslev, M. Jorgensen, B. Bilenberg, K. B. Mogensen, D. Snakenborg, O. Geschke, et al., “Lab-on-a-chip with integrated optical transducers,” Lab on a Chip, 2006, 6(2): 213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, 2008, 620(1): 8–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Sahu, K. V. Kozadaev, and G. Singh, “Michelson interferometer based refractive index biosensor,” in Proceeding of 13th International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics, Kanpur, India, 2016, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    W. Yuan, H. P. Ho, C. L. Wong, S. K. Kong, and C. Lin, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor incorporated in a Michelson interferometer with enhanced sensitivity,” IEEE Sensors Journal, 2007, 7(1): 70–73.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. Irawan, T. Saktioto, J. Ali, and P. Yupapin, “Design of Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ring resonator for biochemical sensing,” Photonic Sensors, 2015, 5(1): 12–18.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    X. Wang and C. K. Madsen, “Highly sensitive compact refractive index sensor based on phase-shifted sidewall Bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” Applied Optics, 2014, 53(1): 96–103.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Sahu, J. Ali, and G. Singh, “Refractive index biosensor using sidewall gratings in dual-slot waveguide,” Optics Communications, 2017, 402: 408–412.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Y. Cheng and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors, 2012, 2(1): 37–49.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Olyaee, S. Najafgholinezhad, and H. A. Banaei, “Four-channel label-free photonic crystal biosensor using nanocavity resonators,” Photonic Sensors, 2013, 3(3): 231–236.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    S. Sahu and G. Singh, “Modeling of phase shift bragg grating biosensor for non-invasive detection of blood components,” in Proceeding of IEEE International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE), Jaipur, India, 2016, pp. 1–3.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    M. Sathish and S. Talabattula, “Polarization analysis of an asymmetrically etched rib waveguide coupler for sensing applications,” Photonic Sensors, 2013, 3(2): 178–183.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    W. C. L. Hopman, P. Pottier, D. Yudistira, J. Van Lith, P. V. Lambeck, R. M. De La Rue, et al., “Quasi-one-dimensional photonic crystal as a compact building-block for refractometric optical sensors,” IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 2005, 11(1): 11–16.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Y. Zhao, J. L. Lawrie, K. R. Beavers, P. E. Laibinis, and S. M. Weiss, “Effect of DNA-induced corrosion on passivated porous silicon biosensors,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2014, 6(16): 13510–13519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    V. Torres-Costa and R. J. Martín-Palma, “Optical properties of porous silicon materials for biomedical applications,” Porous Silicon Biomedical Applications, 2014: 185–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    P. A. Snow, E. K. Squire, P. S. J. Russell, and L. T. Canham, “Vapor sensing using the optical properties of porous silicon Bragg mirrors,” Journal of Applied Physics, 1999, 86(4): 1781–1784.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. Chan, P. M. Fauchet, Y. Li, L. J. Rothberg, and B. L. Miller, “Porous silicon microcavities for biosensing applications,” Physica Status Solidi, 2010, 182(1): 541–546.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 2008, 23(10): 1572–1576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    X. Wei, J. W. Mares, Y. Gao, D. Li, and S. M. Weiss, “Biomolecule kinetics measurements in flow cell integrated porous silicon waveguides,” Biomedical Optics Express, 2012, 3(9): 1993–2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Khardani, M. Bouaïcha, and B. Bessaïs, “Bruggeman effective medium approach for modelling optical properties of porous silicon: comparison with experiment,” Physica Status Solidi, 2010, 4(6): 1986–1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Sahu, J. Ali, P. P. Yupapin, and G. Singh, “Optical biosensor based on a cladding modulated grating waveguide,” Optik, 2018, 166: 103–109.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sourabh Sahu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jalil Ali
    • 2
  • Preecha P. Yupapin
    • 3
  • Ghanshyam Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringMalaviya National Institute of Technology JaipurJaipurIndia
  2. 2.Laser Centre, IBNU SINA ISIR and Faculty of ScienceUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaJohor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Computational Optics Group, Advanced Institute of Material Science, and Faculty of Electrical & Electronics EngineeringTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam

Personalised recommendations