3D Research

, 5:4 | Cite as

Why 3D Cameras are Not Popular: A Qualitative User Study on Stereoscopic Photography Acceptance

  • Jussi Hakala
  • Stina Westman
  • Marja Salmimaa
  • Monika Pölönen
  • Toni Järvenpää
  • Jukka Häkkinen
3DR Express


Digital stereoscopic 3D cameras have entered the consumer market in recent years, but the acceptance of this novel technology has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to identify the benefits and problems that novice users encounter in 3D photography by equipping five users with 3D cameras for a 4-week trial. We gathered data using a weekly questionnaire, an exit interview, and a stereoscopic disparity analysis of the 699 photographs taken during the trial. The results indicate that the participants took photographs at too-close distances, which caused excessive disparities. They learned to avoid the problem to some extent; the number of failed photographs due to excessive stereoscopic disparity decreased 70 % in 4 weeks. The participants also developed a preference for subjects that included clear depth differences and started to avoid photographing people because they looked unnatural in 3D photographs. They also regarded flash-induced shadows and edge violations problematic because of the unnatural effects in the photographs. We propose in-camera assistance tools for 3D cameras to make 3D photography easier.


Stereoscopic 3D Cameras Usability Acceptance Disparity Motivation Experience Learning Photographing 


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Copyright information

© 3D Research Center, Kwangwoon University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jussi Hakala
    • 1
  • Stina Westman
    • 1
  • Marja Salmimaa
    • 2
  • Monika Pölönen
    • 2
  • Toni Järvenpää
    • 2
  • Jukka Häkkinen
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Media TechnologyAalto UniversityHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Nokia Research CenterTampereFinland
  3. 3.Institute of Behavioural SciencesUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland

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