Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Relative incidence of cucurbit viruses and relationship with bio-meteorological variables

  • 24 Accesses


Environmental heterogeneity can shape the plant-virus relationship, furthering the appearance of new diseases in crops, or altering disease incidence and severity. In this work, we studied the virus association with environmental heterogeneity taking into account bio-meteorological variables and virus distribution. In Argentina, three potyviruses, Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), and a cucumovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), are the most common viruses infecting cucurbits. We identified the bio-meteorological variables that had the greatest impact on disease incidence. All the crops were infected with more than one virus in all the studied environments. Molecular and serological analyses showed the highest relative incidence for WMV (46%), the lowest for CMV (9%), and intermediate values for PRSV and ZYMV (20% and 24%, respectively). Infected plants had a random distribution. Viruses and bio-meteorological variables were highly correlated, with high support (Pearson’s r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Temperature variables were negatively correlated with the three potyviruses. CMV was positively correlated with temperature. Relative humidity was positively correlated with potyviruses, but was not correlated with CMV. Our research field data and analyses may help to predict the outbreak of viral diseases in cucurbits crops.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Abou-Jawdah Y, Sobh H, El-Zammar S, Fayyad A, Lecoq H (2000) Incidence and management of virus diseases of cucurbits in Lebanon. Crop Prot 19:217–224

  2. Ali A, Mohammad O, Khattab A, Science B (2012) Distribution of viruses infecting cucurbit crops and isolation of potential new virus-like sequences from weeds in Oklahoma. Plant Dis 96:243–248

  3. Alonso-Prados JL, Luis-Arteaga M, Alvarez JM, Moriones E, Batlle A, Laviña A, García-Arenal F, Fraile A (2003) Epidemics of aphid-transmitted viruses in melon crops in Spain. Eur J Plant Pathol 109(2):129–138

  4. Archie EA, Luikart G, Ezenwa VO (2009) Infecting epidemiology with genetics: a new frontier in disease ecology. Trends Ecol Evol 24:21–30

  5. Bananej K, Vahdat A (2008) Identification, distribution and incidence of viruses in field-grown cucurbit crops of Iran. Phytopathol Mediterr 47:247–257

  6. Biek R, Real LA (2010) The landscape genetics of infectious disease emergence and spread. Mol Ecol 19:3515–3531

  7. Bisognin DA (2002) Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits. Ciência Rural 32(4):715–723

  8. Coutts BA, Kehoe MA, Jones RAC (2011) Minimising losses caused by Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in vegetable cucurbit crops in tropical, sub-tropical and Mediterranean environments through cultural methods and host resistance. Virus Res 159:141–160

  9. del Toro FJ, Aguilar E, Hernández-Walias FJ, Tenllado F, Chung BN, Canto T (2015) High temperature, high ambient CO2 affect the interactions between three positive-sense RNA viruses and a compatible host differentially, but not their silencing suppression efficiencies. PLoS One 10(8):e0136062

  10. del Toro FJ, Rakhshandehroo F, Larruy B, Aguilar E, Tenllado F, Canto T (2017) Effects of simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2 levels on Nicotiana benthamiana and its infection by different positive-sense RNA viruses are cumulative and virus type-specific. Virology 511:184–192

  11. Della Gaspera P, Rodríguez RA, Elisei VR, Ayastuy ME, Khier M, Miglierina A M, Delhey R (2013) Manual del cultivo del zapallo anquito (Cucurbita moschata Duch) (No. 635.62). Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (Argentina)

  12. Desbiez C, Joannon B, Wipf-Scheibel C, Chandeysson C, Lecoq H (2009) Emergence of new strains of watermelon mosaic virus in South-Eastern France: evidence for limited spread but rapid local population shift. Virus Res 141:201–208

  13. Di Rienzo JA, Casanoves F, Balzarini MG, Gonzalez L, Tablada M, Robledo YC (2018) InfoStat versión 2018. Grupo InfoStat, FCA, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina URL http://www.infostat.com.ar

  14. Fajinmi AA (2011) Agro-ecological incidence and severity of Pepper veinal mottle virus, genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae, on cultivated pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Nigeria. Arch Phytopathol Plant Protect 44(4):307–319

  15. Feldman JM, Gracia O (1992) Un nuevo virus de cucurbitáceas en Argentina: el virus de la mancha anillada de la papaya. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias 23:63–67

  16. Fraile A, McLeish MJ, Pagán I, González-Jara P, Piñero D, García-Arenal F (2017) Environmental heterogeneity and the evolution of plant-virus interactions: viruses in wild pepper populations. Virus Res 241:68–76

  17. Francki RIB, Mossop DW, Hatta T (1979) Description of plant viruses. No. 213. CMI/AAB

  18. Gabriel KR (1971) The biplot graphic display of matrices with application to principal component analysis. Biometrika 58(3):453–467

  19. Gal-On A (2007) Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: insect transmission and pathogenicity-the tails of two proteins. Mol Plant Pathol 8(2):139–150

  20. Gracia O (2000) First report of zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Argentina. Plant Dis 84:371

  21. Gracia O, Feldman JM (1986) Virus identificados en cultivos de cucurbitáceas. IDIA 445-448:1–6

  22. Hull R (2009) Comparative plant virology, 2nd edn. Academic press, Norwich

  23. Ibaba JD, Laing MD, Gubba A (2015) Incidence and phylogeny of viruses infecting cucurbit crops in KwaZulu-Natal, Republic of South Africa. Crop Prot 75:46–54

  24. Köklü G, Yilmaz Ö (2006) Occurrence of cucurbit viruses on field-grown melon and watermelon in the Thrace region of Turkey. Phytoprotection 87:123–130

  25. Kone N, Asare-Bediako E, Koita O, Kone D, Winter S (2017) Seasonal and spatial variation in the prevalence of viral diseases and associated aphid-borne viruses in cucurbits in cote d’Ivoire. Ann Agric Sci 62(2):227–234

  26. Kottek M, Grieser J, Beck C, Rudolf B, Rubel F (2006) World map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol Z 15:259–263

  27. Lecoq H, Desbiez C (2012) Viruses of cucurbit crops in the Mediterranean region: an ever-changing picture. Adv Virus Res 84:67–126

  28. Lecoq H, Katis N (2014) Cucurbit virus control. In advances in virus research control of plant virus diseases, pp. 255–296. Eds. G. Loebenstein and N. Katis. San Diego, USA- London UK: Academic Press is an imprint of Elsevier

  29. Lecoq H, Wisler G, Pitrat M (1998) Cucurbit viruses: the classics and the emerging. In: McCreight JD (ed) Cucurbitaceae ‘98: evaluation and enhancement of cucurbit germplasm. ASHS, Alexandria, pp 126–142

  30. Luis-Arteaga M, Alvarez JM, Alonso-Prados JL, Bernal JJ, García-Arenal F, Laviña A, Batlle A, Moriones E (1998) Occurrence, distribution, and relative incidence of mosaic viruses infecting field-grown melon in Spain. Plant Dis 82:979–982

  31. Massumi H, Samei A, Pour AH, Shaabanian M, Rahimian H (2007) Occurrence, distribution, and relative incidence of seven viruses infecting greenhouse-grown cucurbits in Iran. Plant Dis 91(2):159–163

  32. Meentemeyer RK, Haas SE, Vaclavik T (2012) Landscape epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases in natural and human-altered ecosystems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 50:379–402

  33. Mohammed H, Manglli A, Zicca S, El Hussein A, Mohamed M, Tomassoli L (2012) First report of Papaya ringspot virus in pumpkin in Sudan. New Dis Rep 26:26

  34. Mohammed HS, Zicca S, Manglli A, Mohamed ME, El Siddig MA, Tomassoli L, El Hussein AA (2014) Identification and phylogenetic analysis of common pumpkin viruses in Sudan. J Plant Pathol 96(1):77–84

  35. Moreira AS, Filho AB, Rezende JAM (2014) Comparative epidemiology of three virus diseases on zucchini squash. J Phytopathol 163:386–394

  36. Nome SF, March GJ, Giorda LM (1974) Disminución de la productividad de plantas de zapallito de tronco (Cucurbita máxima Duch var. zapallito (Carr. Millán) infectadas con el virus del mosaico de la sandía, raza 2 (Watermelon Mosaic Virus-2). IDIA, 321–324

  37. Perotto MC, Celli MG, Pozzi EA, Luciani CE, Conci VC (2016) Occurrence and characterization of a severe isolate of Watermelon mosaic virus from Argentina. Eur J Plant Pathol 146:213–218

  38. Power AG, Borer ET, Hosseini P, Mitchell CE, Seabloom EW (2011) The community ecology of barley/cereal yellow dwarf viruses in Western US grasslands. Virus Res 159(2):95–100

  39. Reisen WK (2010) Landscape epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. Annu Rev Entomol 55:461–483

  40. Roossinck MJ, García Arenal F (2015) Ecosystem simplification, biodiversity loss and plant virus emergence. Curr Opin Virol 10:56–62

  41. Vučurović A, Bulajić A, Stanković I, Ristić D, Berenji J, Jović J, Krstić B (2012) Non-persistently aphid-borne viruses infecting pumpkin and squash in Serbia and partial characterization of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus isolates. Eur J Plant Pathol 133(4):935–947

Download references


This study was funded by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA) and the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) of Argentina. The authors thank the INTA Water and Climate Institute for providing the daily values for the analyzed bioclimatic parameters. The authors also thank C. Sosa and P. Della Gáspera for their help in the sample collection.

Author information

Correspondence to María Cecilia Perotto.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pozzi, E.A., Bruno, C., Luciani, C.E. et al. Relative incidence of cucurbit viruses and relationship with bio-meteorological variables. Australasian Plant Pathol. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13313-020-00687-8

Download citation


  • Bio-meteorological variables
  • Viral disease
  • Plant-virus interactions