Pesticides on the viability of Pochonia chlamydosporia for controlling Meloidogyne incognita

  • E. G. C. Nasu
  • T. S. A. MonteiroEmail author
  • D. X. Amora
  • P. S. Alves
  • G. S. Podestá
  • F. C. Ferreira
  • L. G. Freitas
Original Paper


One of the major challenges for biological control candidates is the ability to survive after contact with chemical pesticides, which are regularly used in the conventional agriculture. The use of a biological tool does not eliminate the need for less sustainable practices to protect the crops in the field. Therefore, this study evaluated the compatibility of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia with pesticides commonly used in cotton and soybean crops. The tests were performed in vitro and in the greenhouse. For the in vitro test, the isolate Pc - 10 of P. chlamydosporia was transferred to Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar medium and agricultural pesticides in different concentrations. The evaluations of the growth were performed by measuring the diameter (cm) of the colonies. To evaluate the compatibility of P. chlamydosporia with the pesticides in soil, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with cotton and soybean seeds treated with a combination of the fungus and each pesticide separately. Seeds treated only with P. chlamydosporia were also prepared. Each pot soil was infested with 3000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 for cotton, and 3000 eggs of M. incognita race 2 for soybean. Each pot received one seed of cotton or soybean pretreated with one pesticide and P. chlamydosporia. For the positive control treatment, each seed was only treated with P. chlamydosporia. A non-treated seed per pot was used in the negative control. In the in vitro tests, the fungus P. chlamydosporia was sensitive to all agrochemicals used. However, in the greenhouse experiments, the fungus could survive, colonize the roots and the soil, and consequently reduces the M. incognita populations. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the combined use of fungicides, insecticides and nematicides with P. chlamydosporia without compromising the activity of the biological agent.


Biological control Cotton Root-knot nematode and soybean 



To Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for providing a scholarship for the first author.


  1. Ayatollahy E, Fatemy S, Etebarian HR (2008) Potential for biological control of Heterodera schachtii by Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia on sugar beet. Biocontrol Sci Tech 18:157–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boneti JIS, Ferraz S (1981) Modificações do método de Hussey & Barker para extração de ovos de Meloidogyne exigua em raizes de cafeeiro. Fitopatol Bras 6:553Google Scholar
  3. Bontempo AF, Fernandes RH, Lopes J, Freitas LG, Lopes EA (2014) Pochonia chlamydosporia controls Meloidogyne incognita on carrot. Australas Plant Pathol 43:421–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ceiro WG, Arévalo J, Hidalgo-Díaz L (2015) Efectos de plaguicidas y bioestimulantes vegetales sobre la germinación de clamidosporas y el desarrollo in vitro del hongo nematófago Pochonia chlamydosporia. Rev Iberoam Micol 32:277–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Leij F, Kerry BR, Dennehy JA (1993) Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological-control agent for Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla in pot and microplot tests. Nematologica 39:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dhawan SC, Satyendra S (2009) Compatibility of Pochonia chlamydosporia with nematicide and neem cake against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting okra. Indian J Nematol 39:85–89Google Scholar
  7. Ferraz S, Freitas LG, Lopes EA, Arieira CD (2010) Manejo sustentável de fitonematoides, 1th edn. BR. Editora UFV, ViçosaGoogle Scholar
  8. Freitas LG, Dallemole-Giaretta R, Ferraz S, Zooca RJF, Podestá GS (2009) Controle biológico de nematoides: Estudo de casos. In: Zambolim L, Picanço MC (eds) Controle Biológico de Pragas E Doenças. BR. Editora UFV, ViçosaGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaspard T, Jaffee BA, Ferris H (1990) Association of Verticillium chlamydosporium and Paecilomyces lilacinus with root-knot nematode infested soil. J Nematol 22:207–213Google Scholar
  10. Hussey RS, Barker KB (1973) A comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp., including a new technique. Plant Dis Report 57:1025–1028Google Scholar
  11. Jacobs H, Gray SN, Crump DH (2003) Interactions between nematophagous fungi and consequences for their potential as biological agents for the control of potato cyst nematodes. Mycol Res 107:47–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Manzanilla-López RH, Esteves I, Finetti-Sialer MM, Hirsch PR, Ward E, Devonshire J, Hidalgo-Díaz L (2013) Pochonia chlamydosporia: advances and challenges to improve its performance as a biological control agent of sedentary endo-parasitic nematodes. J Nematol 45:1–7Google Scholar
  13. Muthulakshmi M, Kumar S, Subramanian S, Anita B (2012) Compatibility of Pochonia chlamydosporia with other biocontrol agents and carbofuran. J Biopest 5:243–245Google Scholar
  14. O’Callaghan M (2016) Microbial inoculation of seed for improved crop performance: issues and opportunities. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:5729–5746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Santos MCV, Curtis RHC, Abrantes I (2014) The combined use of Pochonia chlamydosporia and plant defence activators - a potential sustainable control strategy for Meloidogyne chitwoodi. Phytopathol Mediterr 53:66–74Google Scholar
  16. Sharf R, Shiekh H, Syed A, Akhtar A, Robab MI (2014) Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Pochonia chlamydosporia and their effects on the growth of Phaseolus vulgaris. Arch Phytopathology Plant Protect 47:622–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Stirling GR (2014) Biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: soil ecosystem management in sustainable agriculture. CABI, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Tobin JD, Haydock PPJ, Hare MC, Woods SR, Crump DH (2008) The compatibility of the fungicide azoxystrobin with Pochonia chlamydosporia, a biological control agent for potato cyst nematodes (Globodera spp.). Ann Appl Biol 152:301–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yang J-I, Loffredo A, Borneman J, Becker JO (2012) Biocontrol efficacy among strains of Pochonia chlamydosporia obtained from a root-knot nematode suppressive soil. J Nematol 44:67–71Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de FitopatologiaUniversidade Federal de ViçosaViçosaBrazil

Personalised recommendations