Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 47, Issue 5, pp 475–484 | Cite as

New Botryosphaeriales on native red milkwood (Mimusops caffra)

  • Fahimeh JamiEmail author
  • Seonju Marincowitz
  • Bernard Slippers
  • Michael J. Wingfield
Original Paper


Fungi in the Botryosphaeriales (Ascomycetes) are common endophytes in woody plants with a wide global distribution and in some cases they are important tree pathogens. The aim of this study was to consider the possible cause of die-back on native coastal red milkwood (Mimusops caffra) trees growing on the east coast of South Africa. Samples were taken from symptomatic tissue and isolations were made. The resulting isolates were identified based on DNA sequence data from the rDNA-ITS, translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin loci. Two new species in the Botryosphaeriales, namely Neofusicoccum variabile sp. nov. and Pseudofusicoccum africanum sp. nov., were found together with an isolate of N. mangroviorum. Neofusicoccum mangroviorum produced significantly longer lesions than the other two species and the control inoculations in pathogenicity tests and it appears to be the cause of the die-back disease.


Botryosphaeriales Milkwood Pathogenic Native trees Taxonomy 



We thank Prof. Brenda Wingfield for assistance in collecting samples and in conducting the pathogenicity tests. Members of the Tree Protection Cooperative Programme (TPCP), the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB) and the University of Pretoria, South Africa, are acknowledged for financial support.


  1. Burgess TI, Wingfield MJ (2017) Pathogens on the move: a 100-year global experiment with planted eucalypts. BioScience 67:14–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Carbone I, Kohn LM (1999) A method for designing primer sets for speciation studies in filamentous ascomycetes. Mycologia 91:553–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Le Roux J et al (2015) Fungal planet description sheets: 371–399. Persoonia 35:264–327CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Slippers B et al (2016) Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification. Philos Trans R Soc B 371:20160024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI et al (2017) Fungal planet description sheets: 469–557. Persoonia 37:218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Desprez-Loustau ML, Marçais B, Nageleisen LM et al (2006) Interactive effects of drought and pathogens in forest trees. Ann For Sci 63:597–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2:113–118CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Glass NL, Donaldson GC (1995) Development of primer sets designed for use with the PCR to amplify conserved genes from filamentous ascomycetes. Appl Environ Microbiol 61:1323–1330PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Government Gazette (2013) Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Gazette number 37037 of 22nd November, 2013, Pretoria, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  10. Jami F, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ et al (2012) Five new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from Acacia karroo in South Africa. Cryptogam Mycol 33:245–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jami F, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ et al (2015) Temporal and spatial variation of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Acacia karroo in South Africa. Fungal Ecol 15:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jami F, Wingfield MJ, Gryzenhout M et al (2017) Diversity of tree-infecting Botryosphaeriales on native and non-native trees in South Africa and Namibia. Australas Plant Pathol.
  13. Marsberg A, Kemler M, Jami F et al (2017) Botryosphaeria dothidea: a latent pathogen of global importance to woody plant health. Mol Plant Pathol 18:477–488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mehl JWM, Slippers B, Roux J et al (2011) Botryosphaeriaceae associated with Pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in South Africa. Mycologia 103:534–553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mehl JWM, Slippers B, Roux J et al (2013) Cankers and other diseases caused by the Botryosphaeriaceae. In: Gonthier P, Nicolotti G (eds) Infectious Forest diseases. CAB International, Oxon, pp 298–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mohali S, Slippers B, Wingfield MJ (2006) Two new Fusicoccum species from Acacia and Eucalyptus in Venezuela, based on morphology and DNA sequence data. Mycol Res 110:405–413CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Osorio JA, Crous CJ, De Beer ZW et al (2017) Endophytic Botryosphaeriaceae, including five new species, associated with mangrove trees in South Africa. Fungal Biol 121:361–393CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Pavlic D, Wingfield MJ, Barber P et al (2008) Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia. Mycologia 100:851–866CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Phillips AJL, Alves A, Abdollahzadeh J et al (2013) The Botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from culture. Stud Mycol 76:51–167CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Posada D, Buckley TR (2004) Model selection and model averaging in phylogenetics: advantages of Akaike information criterion and Bayesian approaches over likelihood ratio tests. Syst Biol 53:793–808CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Rayner RW (1970) A mycological colour chart. Commonwealth mycological institute and British mycological. Society, Kew, SurreyGoogle Scholar
  22. Slippers B, Wingfield MJ (2007) Botryosphaeriaceae as endophytes and latent pathogens of woody plants: diversity, ecology and impact. Fungal Biol Rev 21:90–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Slippers B, Crous PW, Jami F et al (2017) Diversity in the Botryosphaeriales: looking back, looking forward. Fungal Biol 121:307–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Sturrock R, Frankel S, Brown A et al (2011) Climate change and forest diseases. Plant Pathol 60:133–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Theissen F, Sydow H (1918) Vorentwürfe zu den Pseudosphaeriales. Annales Mycologici 16:1–34Google Scholar
  26. Trakunyingcharoen T, Lombard L, Groenewald JZ et al (2015) Caulicolous Botryosphaeriales from Thailand. Persoonia 34:87–99CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S et al (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic Press, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  28. Yang T, Groenewald JZ, Cheewangkoon R et al (2017) Families, genera and species of Botryosphaeriales. Fungal Biol 121:322–346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fahimeh Jami
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seonju Marincowitz
    • 1
  • Bernard Slippers
    • 1
  • Michael J. Wingfield
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Genetics & Microbiology, Forestry & Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations