Advertisement

Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 46, Issue 5, pp 421–431 | Cite as

Risk factors for kiwifruit bacterial canker disease development in ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit blocks

  • K. J. FroudEmail author
  • R. M. Beresford
  • N. Cogger
Original Paper
  • 171 Downloads

Abstract

In November 2010 Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3, the cause of a severe disease, kiwifruit bacterial canker, was first recorded in New Zealand. This study examined risk factors relating to disease management, vine management and orchard layout that were associated with disease symptoms observed by orchardists in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa ‘Hayward’ orchards. A cross-sectional study using data collected via a questionnaire investigated orchard blocks that were symptom-free in March 2012. The outcome we modelled was detection of disease in the block during the study period from March 2012 to February 2013, and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify potential risk factors. Data from 194 growers were included and comprised 53 orchard blocks which remained disease free and 141 which became diseased. This cross-sectional study identified four factors that were associated with Psa symptom development. The associated factors identified in this study are not necessarily causal, but our results can be used by the kiwifruit industry to help prioritise research needs to identify processes involved in the development of kiwifruit bacterial canker in kiwifruit orchards. Priority for further research is the relationship between the timing of copper sprays, callus tissue formation and Psa mobilisation. A second priority is to determine the biological mechanism for the association between girdling and a reduction in disease risk. Use of a cross-sectional study provided a new way to investigate plant disease risk factors and this type of study could be more extensively used, especially during incursions of unwanted organisms.

Keywords

Observational Cross-sectional Multivariable logistic regression Confounding Temporality 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Thank you to Kiwifruit Vine Health for Psa detection data and survey review, to Shane Max and Greg Clark (Zespri Group Ltd), Jenny Natusch and Richard Klas (kiwifruit growers) for assistance with survey development. Thanks to Tracy McCarthy, Clare Morris, Madeleine Jopling and others (Zespri Group Ltd) for administering the questionnaire, the incentive programme and data entry. This project was funded by the Zespri and Kiwifruit Vine Health Psa research and development programme under contract number V11367.

References

  1. Abelleira A, Ares Yebra A, Aguin Casal O, Mansilla Vazquez P (2015) Method for the detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) in asymptomatic branches of Actinidia sp. Revista de Ciencias Agrarias (Portugal) 38:206–212Google Scholar
  2. Cogger N, Froud K (2015) Application of survival analysis to plant protection research. In: Beresford RM, Froud KJ, Kean JM, Worner SP (eds) The plant protection data toolbox: on beyond t. F and X. New Zealand Plant Protection Society, Christchurch, New Zealand, pp 101–107Google Scholar
  3. Currie M, Jackman R, Max S, Blattmann P, Seymour S (2008) Summer girdling—current options and new ideas. New Zealand Kiwifruit Journal 185:13–17Google Scholar
  4. Dallot S, Gottwald T, Labonne G, Quiot JB (2004) Factors affecting the spread of plum pox virus strain M in peach orchards subjected to roguing in France. Phytopathology 94:1390–1398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Dohoo IR, Martin W, Stryhn H (2009) Veterinary epidemiologic research, 2nd edn. University of Prince Edward Island, CharlottetownGoogle Scholar
  6. Doster M, Bostock R (1988) Chemical protection of almond pruning wounds from infection by Phytophthora syringae. Plant Dis 72:492–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doyle CJ, Moore WB, Henzell RF (1989) Modelling the economic consequences of potential management changes in a mature kiwifruit orchard in New Zealand. Agric Syst 31:321–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Engel SM, Wolff MS (2013) Causal inference considerations for endocrine disruptor research in Children's health. Annu Rev Public Health 34:139–158CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Everett KR, Cohen D, Pushparajah IPS, Vergara MJ, Curtis CL, Larsen NJ, Jia Y (2012) Heat treatments to kill Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae on contaminated pollen. New Zealand Plant Protection 65:8–18Google Scholar
  10. Everett KR, Taylor RK, Romberg MK, Rees-George J, Fullerton RA, Vanneste JL, Manning MA (2011) First report of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causing kiwifruit bacterial canker in New Zealand. Aust Plant Dis Notes 6:67–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferrante P, Fiorillo E, Marcelletti S, Marocchi F, Mastroleo M, Simeoni S, Scortichini M (2012) The importance of the main colonization and penetration sites of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and prevailing weather conditions in the development of epidemics in yellow kiwifruit, recently observed in central Italy. J Plant Pathol 94:455–461Google Scholar
  12. Ferrante P, Scortichini M (2009) Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae as causal agent of bacterial canker of yellow kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon) in Central Italy. J Phytopathol 157:768–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Froud K, Cogger N, Beresford R (2014) The relationship between kiwifruit bacterial canker disease (Psa-V (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae)) and kiwifruit productivity. New Zealand Plant Protection 67:34–40Google Scholar
  14. Froud K, Cogger N, Beresford R (2015a) Two case studies using observational study designs and multivariable analysis investigating kiwifruit bacterial blight in New Zealand. In: Beresford R, Froud K, Worner SP, Kean J (eds) The plant protection data toolbox: on beyond t. F and X. Caxton, Christchurch, pp 121–137Google Scholar
  15. Froud K, Cogger N, Beresford R (2016) Kiwifruit bacterial canker in “Hayward” kiwifruit: design of a quantitative questionnaire for kiwifruit growers. New Zealand Plant Protection 69:30–38Google Scholar
  16. Froud K, Everett K, Tyson J, Beresford R, Cogger N (2015b) Review of the risk factors associated with kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. New Zealand Plant Protection 68:313–327Google Scholar
  17. Gallelli A, Talocci S, L'Aurora A, Loreti S (2011) Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, from symptomless fruits and twigs, and from pollen. Phytopathol Mediterr 50:462–472Google Scholar
  18. Grant RL (2014) Converting an odds ratio to a range of plausible relative risks for better communication of research findings. BMJ 348:f7450CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hosmer DW Jr, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant RX (2013) Applied logistic regression. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kabacoff R (2011) R in action: data analysis and graphics with R. Manning Publications Co., Shelter IslandGoogle Scholar
  21. Kiwifruit Vine Health Inc (2015) Kiwifruit Vine Health Psa-V Seasonal Management Guide. KVH guidelines, p 43. Kiwifruit Vine Health, Tauranga, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Y, Cheng H, Fang S, Qian Z (2001) Ecological factors affecting prevalence of kiwifruit bacterial canker and bacteriostatic action of bacteriocides on Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae. Chinese journal of applied ecology (Yingyong Shengtai Xuebao) 12:359–362Google Scholar
  23. Maes D, Chiers K, Haesebrouck F, Laevens H, Verdonck M, Ad K (2001) Herd factors associated with the seroprevalences of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovars 2, 3 and 9 in slaughter pigs from farrow-to-finish pig herds. Vet Res 32:409–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mann C (2003) Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies. Emerg Med J 20:54–60CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Marill KA (2004) Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression. Acad Emerg Med 11:94–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Maselko J, Hayward RD, Hanlon A, Buka S, Meador K (2012) Religious service attendance and major depression: a case of reverse causality? Am J Epidemiol 175:576–583CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Pennycook S, Triggs C (1991) Bacterial blossom blight of kiwifruit-a 5-year survey. In: II Int Sym Kiwifruit 297, pp 559–566Google Scholar
  28. Petrie A, Bulman JS, Osborn JF (2002) Further statistics in dentistry part 2: research designs 2. Br Dent J 193:435–440CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. R Core Team (2016) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://wwwR-projectorg/Version 3.3.1Google Scholar
  30. Rothman K, Greenland S (2005) Causation and causal inference in epidemiology. Am J Public Health 95:S144–S150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Rothman KJ (1990) No adjustments are needed for multiple comparisons. Epidemiology 1:43–46CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rothman KJ (2012) Epidemiology: an introduction, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  33. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Poole C, Lash TL (2008) Causation and causal inference. In: Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL (eds) Modern epidemiology, 3rd edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  34. Schilmiller AL, Howe GA (2005) Systemic signaling in the wound response. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:369–377CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shahar E, Shahar DJ (2013) Causal diagrams and the cross-sectional study. Clinical epidemiology 5:57–65CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Snelgar B, Blattmann P, Tyson JL, Curtis C, Manning MA (2012a) Girdles can be infected with Psa-V. New Zealand Kiwifruit Journal May/Jun 213:20–23Google Scholar
  37. Snelgar B, Blattmann P, Tyson JL, Manning MA, Curtis C (2012b) On-orchard management of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae infection and symptom expression: part C: girdling - possible positive and negative effects on Psa a report prepared for ZESPRI Group limited SPTS no 6935 Plant & Food Research, Te Puke, pp 39Google Scholar
  38. Taddei S, Bernardi R, Salvini M, Pugliesi C, Durante M (2007) Effect of copper on callus growth and gene expression of in vitro-cultured pith explants of Nicotiana glauca. Plant Biosystems 141:194–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tanner DJ (2015) A biosecurity incursion: the impact of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) on the New Zealand kiwifruit industry. In: Hale C, hunter D, Roberts W, Ikin R, McMaugh S (eds) Acta Horticulturae. 1105: 379-384Google Scholar
  40. Thebaud G, Sauvion N, Chadoeuf J, Dufils A, Labonne G (2006) Identifying risk factors for European stone fruit yellows from a survey. Phytopathology 96:890–899CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tontou R, Giovanardi D, Stefani E (2014) Pollen as a possible pathway for the dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae and bacterial canker of kiwifruit. Phytopathol Mediterr 53:333–339Google Scholar
  42. van Engelsdorp D et al (2013) Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health. J Apic Res 52:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vandenbroucke JP et al (2007) Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE): explanation and elaboration. Epidemiology:805–835Google Scholar
  44. Vanneste JL (2012) Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa): a threat to the New Zealand and global kiwifruit industry. N Z J Crop Hortic Sci 40:265–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vanneste JL, Giovanardi D, Yu J, Cornish DA, Kay C, Spinelli F, Stefani E (2011a) Detection of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in kiwifruit pollen samples. New Zealand Plant Protection 64:246–251Google Scholar
  46. Vanneste JL, Kay C, Onorato R, Yu J, Cornish DA, Spinelli F, Max S (2011b) Recent advances in the characterisation and control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker on kiwifruit. In: costa G, Ferguson AR (eds) Acta Horticulturae, vol 913, pp 443-455Google Scholar
  47. Vanneste JL, Yu J, Cornish DA, Max S, Clark G (2011c) Presence of pseudomonas syringae pv. Actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, on symptomatic and asymptomatic tissues of kiwifruit. New Zealand Plant Protection 64:241–245Google Scholar
  48. Vicent A, Botella-Rocamora P, Lopez-Quilez A, de la Roca E, Bascon J, Garcia-Jimenez J (2012) Relationships between agronomic factors and epidemics of Phytophthora branch canker of citrus in southwestern. Spain European Journal of Plant Pathology 133:577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zewde T, Fininsa C, Sakhuja PK, Ahmed S (2007) Association of white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) of garlic with environmental factors and cultural practices in the north Shewa highlands of Ethiopia. Crop Prot 26:1566–1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Zuur A, Ieno EN, Walker N, Saveliev AA, Smith GM (2009) Mixed effects models and extensions in ecology with R. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Plant and Food ResearchAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations