Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 46, Issue 3, pp 289–292 | Cite as

Evaluation of chili germplasm for resistance to bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

  • M. N. Aslam
  • T. Mukhtar
  • M. Ashfaq
  • M. A. Hussain
Research Note


Bacterial wilt incited by Ralstonia solanacearum is a serious threat to economically important crops throughout the world and warrants strict control strategies. Use of resistant cultivars is one of the most important strategies to dispense with the pernicious consequences of chemicals. In the present study, twenty eight chili cultivars were assessed for their relative resistance or susceptibility to a highly virulent strain of R. solanacearum biovar 3 (RsBd6). Two cultivars namely Skyline-II and Hifly appeared highly resistant. Sanam was the only cultivar found to be resistant while twelve cultivars were categorized as moderately resistant to the bacterium. On the other hand, seven cultivars were rated as moderately susceptible and three showed susceptible reaction. Two cultivars, Talhari and Maxi, behaved as highly susceptible and California Wonder was found to be extremely susceptible. In susceptible cultivars, symptoms appeared 4 days after inoculation resulting in complete wilting within 14 days while in resistant and moderately resistant cultivars, no wilting was observed even after 14 days of inoculation. Brown discoloration in vascular systems of highly susceptible plants was also observed. The resistant and moderately resistant cultivars are therefore recommended for cultivation and in developing new resistant chili cultivars.


Capsicum annuum Bacterial wilt Resistance Susceptibility 


  1. Anith KN, Momol MT, Kloepper JW, Marois JJ, Olson SM, Jones JB (2004) Efficacy of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and soil amendment for integrated management of bacterial wilt on tomato. Plant Dis 88:669–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Artal RB, Gopalakrishnan C, Thippeswamy B (2012) An efficient inoculation method to screen tomato, brinjal and chilli entries for bacterial wilt resistance. Pest Manag Hort Ecosyst 18(1):70–73Google Scholar
  3. Ashfaq M, Saeed U, Mukhtar T, Haq MI (2015) First report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in ridge gourd in Pakistan. Plant Dis 99(12):1870. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-05-15-0553-PDN CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aslam MN (2015) Variability among Ralstonia solanacearum isolates and screening of chili germplasm for resistance. Dissertation, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  5. Aslam MN, Mukhtar T, Ashfaq M, Asad MJ, Hussain MA (2015) Incidence and prevalence of bacterial wilt of chili in Punjab, Pakistan. Mycopathologia 13(1):37–41Google Scholar
  6. Aslam MN, Mukhtar T, Hussain MA, Raheel M (2017) Assessment of resistance to bacterial wilt incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato germplasm. J Plant Dis Prot. doi: 10.1007/s41348-017-0100-1
  7. Bosland PW, Votava EJ (2000) Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums. CABI Publishing, CAB International, WalingfordGoogle Scholar
  8. Elphinstone JG (2005) The current bacterial wilt situation: a global overview. In: Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC (eds) Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. American Phytopathological Society, Saint Paul, pp 9–28Google Scholar
  9. Elphinstone JG, Hennessy J, Wilson JK, Stead DE (1996) Sensitivity of different methods for the detection of Pseudomonas solanacearum in potato tuber extracts. EPPO/OEPP Bulletin 26:663–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (2012) The state of food insecurity in the world 2004: monitoring progress towards the world food summit and millennium development goals. RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. French ER, De Lindo L (1982) Resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum in potato: specificity and temperature sensitivity. Phytopathology 72:1408–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimault V, Prior P, Anais G (1995) A monogeneic dominant resistance of tomato to bacterial wilt in Hawaii 7996 is associated with plant colonization by Pseudomonas solanacearum. J Phytopathol 143:349–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hanson PM, Wang JF, Licardo O, Mah SY, Hartman GL, Lin YC, Chen JT (1996) Variable reaction of tomato lines to bacterial wilt evaluated at several locations in Southeast Asia. Hortscience 31:143–146Google Scholar
  14. Hong JC, Norman DJ, Reed DL, Momol MT, Jones JB (2012) Diversity among Ralstonia solanacearum strains isolated from the southeastern United States. Phytopathology 102:924–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hussain MA, Mukhtar T, Kayani MZ (2016) Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on resistant and susceptible okra cultivars. Pak J Agri Sci 53:371–375Google Scholar
  16. Iqbal U, Mukhtar T, Iqbal SM (2014) In vitro and in vivo evaluation of antifungal activities of some antagonistic plants against charcoal rot causing fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina. Pak J Agri Sci 51:689–694Google Scholar
  17. Ishihara T, Mitsuhara I, Takahashi H, Nakaho K (2012) Transcriptome analysis of quantitative resistance-specific response upon Ralstonia solanacearum infection in tomato. PLoS One 7:e46763CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Kayani MZ, Mukhtar T, Hussain MA (2017) Effects of southern root knot nematode population densities and plant age on growth and yield parameters of cucumber. Crop Prot 92:207–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kelman A, Sequeira L (1965) Root–to–root spread of Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology 55:304–309Google Scholar
  20. Khan AR, Javed N, Sahi ST, Mukhtar T, Khan SA, Ashraf W (2017) Glomus mosseae (Gerd & Trappe) and neemex reduce invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita. Pak J Zool 49(3):841–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Monma S, Sakata Y, Matsunaga H (1997) Inheritance and selection efficiency of bacterial wilt resistance in tomato. Jpn Agric Res 31:195–204Google Scholar
  22. Mukhtar T, Hussain MA, Kayani MZ, Aslam MN (2014) Evaluation of resistance to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in okra cultivars. Crop Prot 56:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mukhtar T, Arooj M, Ashfaq M, Gulzar A (2017a) Resistance evaluation and host status of selected green gram genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita. Crop Prot 92:198–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mukhtar T, Hussain MA, Kayani MZ (2017b) Yield responses of twelve okra cultivars to southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Bragantia 76:108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Opina NL, Miller SA (2005) Evaluation of immunoassays for detection of Ralstonia solanacearum, causal agent of bacterial wilt of tomato and eggplant in the Philippines. Acta Hortic 695:353–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Opina N, Tavner F, Hollway G, Wang JF, Li TH, Maghirang R, Fegan M, Hayward AC, Krishnapillai V, Hong WF, Holloway BW, Timmis J (1997) A novel method for development of species and strain–specific DNA probes and PCR primers for identifying Burkholderia solanacearum (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum). Asia–Pacific Journal of Molecular Biol Biotech 5:19–30Google Scholar
  27. Shahbaz MU, Mukhtar T, Haque MI, Begum N (2015) Biochemical and serological characterization of Ralstonia solanacearum associated with chilli seeds from Pakistan. Int J Agric Biol 17:31–40Google Scholar
  28. Tariq-Khan M, Munir A, Mukhtar T, Hallmann J, Heuer H (2016) Distribution of root-knot nematode species and their virulence on vegetables in northern temperate agro-ecosystems of the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. J Plant Dis Prot. doi: 10.1007/s41348-016-0045-9
  29. Wicker E, Grassart L, Coranson-Beaudu R, Mian D, Guilbaud C, Fegan M, Prior P (2007) Ralstonia solanacearum strains from Martinique (French West Indies) exhibiting a new pathogenic potential. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:6790–6801CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Winstead NN, Kelman A (1952) Inoculation techniques for evaluation of resistance to Pseudomonas solanacearum. Phytopathology 42:628–634Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Aslam
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. Mukhtar
    • 2
  • M. Ashfaq
    • 2
  • M. A. Hussain
    • 3
  1. 1.University College of Agriculture and Environmental SciencesThe Islamia University of BahawalpurBahawalpurPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyPir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  3. 3.Plant Pathology SectionRegional Agricultural Research InstituteBahawalpurPakistan

Personalised recommendations