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Australasian Plant Pathology

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 283–311 | Cite as

Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa

  • Gilbert Kamgan NkuekamEmail author
  • Michael J. Wingfield
  • Jolanda Roux
Article

Abstract

The ascomycete genus Ceratocystis (Microascales, Ceratocystidaceae) includes important fungal pathogens of trees, including Eucalyptus species. Ceratocystis species and their Thielaviopsis asexual states are typically associated with insects, such as nitidulid beetles, that spread them over long distances. Eucalyptus trees comprise a substantial component of the forestry industry in South Africa, however, limited information is available regarding Ceratocystis species that infect these trees. In this study, Ceratocystis species were collected from wounds on Eucalyptus trees in all the major plantation regions of South Africa, as well as from insects associated with these wounds. Both morphology and multigene DNA sequence analyses, using three nuclear loci, were used to identify the Ceratocystis species. Of the 260 isolates collected, nine Ceratocystis species, of which two were represented only by their Thielaviopsis anamorph states were identified. These species were C. eucalypticola, C. pirilliformis, C. savannae, C. oblonga, C. moniliformis, T. basicola, T. thielavioides and two Ceratocystis species that are described here as C. salinaria sp. nov. and C. decipiens sp. nov. Insects associated with these Ceratocystis species were Brachypeplus depressus (Nitidulidae), Carpophylus bisignatus, C. dimidiatus (Nitidulidae), Xyleborus affinis (Scolytidae), Litargus sp. (Mycetophagidae) and a Staphylinid (Staphylinidae) species.

Keywords

Ascomycetes Ceratocystidaceae Forestry Fungal tree pathogens Microascales Nitidulidae Thielaviopsis Wounds 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the National Research Foundation of South Africa (NRF), the THRIP Initiative of the Department of Trade and Industry (THRIP/DST), members of the Tree Protection Co-operative Programme (TPCP) and the University of Pretoria for funding and the facilities to undertake this study. Dr. Andrew Cline and Dr. Roger Beaver from the USA are thanked for assisting us with the identification of insects collected in this study. Prof. Goeneveld and Dr. Van der Linde from the Department of Statistics and Mr. Alan Hall of the Electron Microscopy Unit, University of Pretoria are thanked for their assistance with the statistical analyses and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. We further thank Dr. Hugh Glen who provided the Latin diagnoses and made suggestions for the names of the new taxa. Staffs of member companies of the TPCP are thanked for their assistance in identifying field sites for surveys and assistance during the surveys.

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Copyright information

© Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilbert Kamgan Nkuekam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael J. Wingfield
    • 1
  • Jolanda Roux
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)University of PretoriaHatfieldRepublic of South Africa

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