Distribution of Diplodia pinea and its genotypic diversity within asymptomatic Pinus patula trees
- 221 Downloads
Diplodia pinea (= Sphaeropsis sapinea) is an endophytic fungus and opportunistic canker pathogen of Pinus spp. The diversity of this fungus has been studied at broad geographic scales, but little is known regarding its population structure at smaller spatial scales such as within a single tree. This is despite the importance that diversity in a single tree might hold for understanding the biology of the fungus, especially the role of the endophytic or asymptomatic phase in disease development. Moreover there was not information regarding the distribution of the fungus within healthy trees and its persistence. The genotypic diversity of these isolates was investigated using microsatellite markers. Five polymorphic markers were developed and these were used together with eight previously developed markers and vegetative compatibility tests to study the genotypic diversity of D. pinea isolates. In this study, D. pinea was isolated for the first time in the well structured stems of healthy P. patula trees along with branches and cones. From a total of 44 isolates collected from five trees, 39 microsatellite haplotypes and 32 vegetative compatibility groups (VCG’s) were identified. The results indicate high genotypic diversity of D. pinea within individual asymptomatic trees which will lead to disease outbreak when trees are physiologically stressed.
KeywordsMicrosatellite markers Population diversity Vegetative compatibility groups Persistence
We acknowledge the DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Tree Health Biotechnology (CTHB), Tree Pathology Co-operative Program (TPCP), National Research Foundation (NRF) and the International Foundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden for financial support. We also thank Hardus Hatting, Brett Hurley and Jolanda Roux for assistance with the collection of samples and Mesfin Bogale is also acknowledged for his assistance in SSR primer design and validation.
- Burgess T, Wingfield MJ (2001) Exotic pine forestry in the Southern Hemisphere: a brief history of establishment and quarantine practices. S Afr For J 192:79–84Google Scholar
- Burgess TI, Bihon W, Wingfield MJ, Wingfield BD (2009) A simple and rapid method to determine vegetative compatibility groups in fungi. Inoculum Mycol Soc Am 60:1–2Google Scholar
- Gamboa MA, Bayman P (2001) Communities of Endophytic Fungi in Leaves of a Tropical Timber Tree (Guarea guidonia: Meliaceae). Biotropica 33:352–360Google Scholar
- Lundquist JE (1987) A history of five forest diseases in South Africa. S Afr For J 140:51–59Google Scholar
- Maresi G, Luchi N, Pinzani P, Pazzagli M, Capretti P (2007) Detection of Diplodia pinea in asymptomatic pine shoots and its relation to the Normalized Isolation index. For Pathol 37:272–280Google Scholar
- Smith H, Wingfield MJ, Crous PW, Coutinho TA (1996) Sphaeropsis sapinea and Botryosphaeria dothidea endophytic in Pinus spp. and Eucalyptus spp. in South Africa. S Afr J Bot 62:86–88Google Scholar
- Stanosz GR, Smith DR, Albers JS (2005) Surveys for asymptomatic persistence of Sphaeropsis sapinea on or in stems of red pine seedlings from seven Great Lakes region nurseries. For Pathol 35:233–244Google Scholar
- Swart WJ, Wingfield MJ, Knox-Davies PS (1987) Factors associated with Sphaeropsis sapinea infection of pine trees in South Africa. Phytophylactica 19:505–510Google Scholar
- Swofford DL (2002) PAUP*. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (* and other Methods), Version 4. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T (1999) PopGene version 1.31 (Microsoft windows based freeware for population genetic analysis. Alberta).Google Scholar