Indian Pediatrics

, Volume 56, Issue 1, pp 23–28 | Cite as

Height Velocity Percentiles in Indian Children Aged 5–17 Years

  • Vaman Khadilkar
  • Anuradha KhadilkarEmail author
  • Archana Arya
  • Veena Ekbote
  • Neha Kajale
  • Lavanya Parthasarathy
  • Vivek Patwardhan
  • Supriya Phanse
  • Shashi Chiplonkar
Research Paper



To assess height velocity and develop height velocity percentiles in 5-17-year-old Indian children; and to study the magnitude and age at peak height velocity.


Mixed longitudinal study.


Private schools at Pune and Delhi.


2949 children (1681 boys) belonging to affluent class aged 5–17 years (1473-Pune, 1476-Delhi).


Annual height and weight measurements from 2007 to 2013. Total 13214 height velocity measurements (7724 on boys).

Outcome Measures

Height velocity percentiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 97th) constructed using LMS chart maker.


Age- and gender-specific height velocity percentiles were generated. Median height velocity in girls decreased from 5 to 8 years, increased to a peak of 6.6 cm at 10.5 years and then declined to 0.3 cm at 17.5 years. In boys, median height velocity reduced till 10.5, increased to a peak of 6.8 cms at 13.5 years and then declined to 1cm by 18 years.


Height velocity percentiles in 5-17-year-old urban Indian children were constructed.


Anthropometry Growth Peak height 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gerver W, de Bruin R. Growth velocity: a presentation of reference values in Dutch children. Horm Res. 2003;60:181–4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Khadilkar V, Yadav S, Agrawal K, Tamboli S, Banerjee M, Cherian A, et al. Revised IAP growth charts for height, weight and body mass index for 5- to 18-year-old Indian children. Indian Pediatr. 2015;52:47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roche AF, Himes JH. Incremental growth charts. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980; 33:2041–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    de Onis M, Siyam A, Borghi E, Onyango A, Piwoz E, Garza C. Comparison of the World Health Organization growth velocity standards with existing US reference data. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e18–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marceau K, Ram N, Houts R, Grimm K, Susman E. Individual differences in boys’ and girls’ timing and tempo of puberty: Modeling development with non-linear growth models. Dev Psychol. 2011;47:1389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tanner J, Whitehouse R, Takaishi M. Standards from birth to maturity for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity: British children, 1965. II. Arch Dis Child. 1966;41:613–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tanner J, Davies P. Clinical longitudinal standards for height and height velocity for North American children. J Pediatr. 1985;107:317–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chae H, Suh I, Kwon A, Kim Y, Kim Y, Kang D, et al. Longitudinal standards for height and height velocity in Korean children and adolescents: the Kangwha study. [corrected]. J Korean Med Sci. 2013;28:1512–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wikland K, Luo Z, Niklasson A, Karlberg J. Swedish population-based longitudinal reference values from birth to 18 years of age for height, weight and head circumference. Acta Paediatr. 2002;91:739–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khadilkar V, Khadilkar A. Growth charts: A diagnostic tool. Indian J Endocr Metab. 2011;15:S166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khadilkar V, Khadilkar V, Cole J, Sayyad G. Crosssectional growth curves for height, weight and body mass index for affluent Indian children, 2007. Indian Pediatr. 2009;46:477–89.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cole T, Freeman J, Preece M. British 1990 Growth reference centiles for weight, height, body mass index and head circumference fitted by maximum penalized likelihood. Stat Med. 1998;17:407–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kelly L, Winer K, Kalkwarf H, Oberfield E, Lappe J, Gilsanz V, et al. Age-based reference ranges for annual height velocity in US children. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:2104–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    van’t Hof M, Wit J, Roede M. A method to construct age references for skewed skinfold data, using Box-Cox transformations to normality. Hum Biol. 1985;57:131–9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cole T, Green P. Smoothing reference centile curves: The LMS method and penalized likelihood. Stat Med. 1992;11:1305–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hedeker D, Gibbons R, Waternaux C. Sample size estimation for longitudinal designs with attrition: Comparing time-related contrasts between two groups. J Educ Behav Stat. 1999;24:70–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Waterlow JC, Buzina R, Keller W, Lane JM, Nichaman MZ, Tanner JM. The presentation and use of height and weight data for comparing the nutritional status of groups of children under the age of 10 years. Bull World Heal Org. 1977;55:489–98.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Granados A, Gebremariam A, Lee J. Relationship between timing of peak height velocity and pubertal staging in boys and girls. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2015;7:235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dabas A, Khadgawat R, Gahlot M, Surana V, Mehan N, Ramot R, et al. Height velocity in apparently healthy North Indian school children. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018;22:256–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rao S, Joshi S, Kanade A. Height velocity, body fat and menarcheal age of Indian girls. Indian Pediatr. 1998;35:619–28.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brook C, Hindmarsh P, Healy M. A better way to detect growth failure. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;293:1186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hauspie R, Das S, Preece M, Tanner J. A longitudinal study of the growth in height of boys and girls of West Bengal (India) aged six months of 20 years. Ann Hum Biol. 1980;7:429–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buckler J, Wild J. Longitudinal study of height and weight at adolescence. Arch Dis Child. 1987;62:1224–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Toppari J, Juul A. Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;324:39–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Satyanarayana K, Radhaiah G, Mohan R, Thimmayamma B, Rao N, Rao B, et al. The adolescent growth spurt of height among rural Indian boys in relation to childhood nutritional background: An 18-year longitudinal study. Ann Hum Biol. 1989;16:4,289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lee T, Chao T, Tang R, Hsieh C, Chen S, Ho L. A longitudinal study of growth patterns in school children in Taipei area I: Growth curve and height velocity curve. J Chin Med Assoc. 2004;67:67–72.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vaman Khadilkar
    • 1
  • Anuradha Khadilkar
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Archana Arya
    • 2
  • Veena Ekbote
    • 1
  • Neha Kajale
    • 1
  • Lavanya Parthasarathy
    • 1
  • Vivek Patwardhan
    • 1
  • Supriya Phanse
    • 1
  • Shashi Chiplonkar
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of PediatricsHirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Jehangir HospitalsPuneIndia
  2. 2.Departments of PediatricsSir Gangaram HospitalNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Research Institute, Old Building BasementJehangir HospitalPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations