Indian Pediatrics

, Volume 50, Issue 7, pp 655–658

Risk factors for scholastic backwardness in children

  • K. Haneesh
  • P. Krishnakumar
  • Sowmya K. Sukumaran
  • A. Riyaz
Research Paper



To identify the risk factors for scholastic backwardness in children.


Children in the 6–12 year age group attending regular schools and referred to the child guidance clinic for scholastic backwardness.


Tertiary care hospital in South India.


Participants were compared with an age-and sexmatched group of children with good academic performance, to ascertain risk factors for scholastic backwardness.


There were 75 boys and 35 girls in the study group. Among them 30 (27%) children had mental retardation, 39 (36%) had borderline intelligence and 12 (11%) had microcephaly. Undernutrition was noted in 36 (33%) children and 31 (28%) had stunted growth. 28 (26%) children had a history of chronic medical problems like epilepsy, bronchial asthma and congenital heart diseases. Visual, hearing and speech defects were present in 6 (6%), 5 (5%) and 12 (11%) children, respectively. Statistically significant differences were noted in the educational level and employment status of parents of children with scholastic backwardness and those with good academic performance.


Social and family factors have a significant influence on the academic functioning of children.

Key words

Children Risk factors Scholastic backwardness 


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Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Haneesh
    • 1
  • P. Krishnakumar
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sowmya K. Sukumaran
  • A. Riyaz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Maternal and Child HealthMedical CollegeCalicutIndia
  2. 2.Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (IMHANS) Medical CollegeKozhikodeIndia
  3. 3.Aswathy; Vishnunagar, Thondayad, Post ChevarambalamCalicutIndia

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