Indian Pediatrics

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 297–305 | Cite as

Therapeutic applications of vasopressin in pediatric patients

  • Amit AgrawalEmail author
  • Vishal K. Singh
  • Amit Varma
  • Rajesh Sharma
Review Article



Reports of successful use of vasopressin in various shock states and cardiac arrest has lead to the emergence of vasopressin therapy as a potentially major advancement in the management of critically ill children.


To provide an overview of physiology of vasopressin, rationale of its use and dose schedule in different disease states with special focus on recent advances in the therapeutic applications of vasopressin.

Data Source

MEDLINE search (1966–September 2011) using terms “vasopressin”, “terlipressin”, “arginine-vasopressin”, “shock”, “septic shock”, “vasodilatory shock”, “cardiac arrest”, and “resuscitation” for reports on vasopressin/terlipressin use in children and manual review of article bibliographies. Search was restricted to human studies. Randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, evaluation studies, case series, and case reports on vasopressin/terlipressin use in children (preterm neonates to 21 years of age) were included. Outcome measures were analysed using following clinical questions: indication, dose and duration of vasopressin/terlipressin use, main effects especially on systemic blood pressure, catecholamine requirement, urine output, serum lactate, adverse effects, and mortality.


51 reports on vasopressin (30 reports) and terlipressin (21 reports) use in pediatric population were identified. A total of 602 patients received vasopressin/terlipressin as vasopressors in various catecholamine-resistant states (septic - 176, post-cardiotomy - 136, other vasodilatory/mixed shock — 199, and cardiac arrest - 101). Commonly reported responses include rapid improvement in systemic blood pressure, decline in concurrent catecholamine requirement, and increase in urine output; despite these effects, the mortality rates remained high.


In view of the limited clinical experience, and paucity of randomized controlled trials evaluating these drugs in pediatric population, currently no definitive recommendations on vasopressin/terlipressin use can be laid down. Nevertheless, available clinical data supports the use of vasopressin in critically ill children as a rescue therapy in refractory shock and cardiac arrest.

Key words

Cardiac arrest Children Shock Terlipressin Vasopressin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

13312_2012_46_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (262 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 262 KB.


  1. 1.
    Du Vigneaud V, Gash DT, Karsoyannis PG. A synthetic preparation possessing biological properties associated with arginine vasopressin. J Am Chem Soc. 1954;76:4751–4752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oliver H, Schafer E. On the physiological action of extracts of the pituitary body and certain other glandular organs: preliminary communication. J Physiol (Lond). 1895;18:277–279.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Turner RA, Pierce JG, Du Vigneaud V. The purification and the amino acid content of vasopressin preparation. J Biol Chem. 1951;191:21–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Holmes CL, Landry DW, Granton JT. Science Review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part-I — receptor physiology. Crit Care. 2003;7:427–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holmes CL, Patel BM, Russell JA, Walley KR. Physiology of vasopressin relevant to management of septic shock. Chest. 2001;120:989–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bourque CW, Oliet SH, Richard D. Osmoreceptors, osmoreception and osmoregulation. Front Neuroendocrinol. 1994;15:231–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barrett LK, Singer M, Clapp LH. Vasopressin: mechanisms of action on the vasculature in health and in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Treshcan TA, Peters J. The vasopressin system: Physiology and clinical strategies. Anesthesiology. 2006;105:599–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunser MW, Hasibeder WR, Wenzel V, Schwarz S, Ulmer H, Knotzer H, et al. Endocrinologic response to vasopressin infusion in advanced vasodilatory shock. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:1266–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okamura T, Ayajiki K, Fujioka H, Toda N. Mechanisms underlying arginine vasopressin-induced relaxation in monkey isolated coronary arteries. J Hypertens. 1999;17:673–678.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Russ RD, Walker BR. Role of nitric oxide in vasopressinergic pulmonary vasodilatation. Am J Physiol. 1992;262:743–747.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tayama E, Ueda T, Shojima T, Akasu K, Oda T, Fukunaga S, et al. Arginine vasopressin is an ideal drug after cardiac surgery for the management of low systemic vascular resistant hypotension concomitant with pulmonary hypertension. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2007;6:715–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morelli A, Rocco M, Conti G, Orecchioni A, De Gaetano A, Cortese G, et al. Effects of terlipressin on systemic and regional haemodynamics in catecholamine-treated hyperkinetic septic shock. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:597–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haslam RJ, Rosson GM. Aggregation of human blood platelets by vasopressin. Am J Physiol. 1972;223:958–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Douglas JG, Forrest JA, Prowse CV, Cash JD, Finlayson ND. Effects of lysine vasopressin and glypressin on the fibrinolytic system in cirrhosis. Gut. 1979;20:565–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Solanki P, Chawla A, Garg R, Gupta R, Jain M, Sarin SK, et al. Beneficial effects of terlipressin in hepatorenal syndrome: A prospective, randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2003;18:152–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Richardson D, Robinson A. Desmopressin. Ann Intern Med. 1985;103:228–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Key DW, Bloom DA, Sanvordenker J. Low-dose DDAVP in nocturnal enuresis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1992;31:299–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bichet DG, Razi M, Lonergan M, Arthus MF, Papukna V, Kortas C, et al. Hemodynamic and coagulation responses to 1-desamino [8-d-arginine] vasopressin in patients with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:881–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wise-Faberowski L, Soriano SG, Ferrari L, McManus ML, Wolfsdorf JI, Majzoub J, et al. Perioperative management of diabetes insipidus in children. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2004;16:220–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cochran EB, Phelps SJ, Tolley EA, Stidman GL. Prevalence of, and risk factors for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding in critically ill pediatric patients. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:1519–1523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lacroix J, Nadeau D, Laberge S, Gauthier M, Lapierre G, Farrell CA. Frequency of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a pediatric intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 1992;20:35–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Teach SJ, Fleisher GR. Rectal bleeding in the pediatric emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 1994;23:1252–1258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Darcy M. Treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding: Vasopressin infusion versus embolization. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2003;14:535–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Molleston JP. Variceal bleeding in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2003;37:538–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Landry DW, Oliver JA. The pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. N Engl J Med. 2001;345:588–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Landry DW, Levin HR, Gallant EM, Ashton RC Jr., Seo S, D’Alessandro D, et al. Vasopressin deficiency contributes to the vasodilation of septic shock. Circulation. 1997;95:1122–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lechner E, Dickerson HA, Fraser CD Jr, Chang AC. Vasodilatory shock after surgery for aortic valve endocarditis: Use of low-dose vasopressin. Pediatr Cardiol. 2004;25:558–561.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liedel JL, Meadow W, Nachman, J, Koogler T, Kahana M. Use of vasopressin in refractory hypotension in children with vasodilatory shock: Five cases and a review of the literature. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2002;3:15–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Choong K, Bohn D, Fraser DD, Gaboury I, Hutchison JS, Joffe AR, et al. Vasopressin in pediatric vasodilatory shock: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2009;180:632–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yilidzdas D, Yapicioglu H, Celik U, Setdemir Y, Alhan E. Terlipressin as a rescue therapy for catecholamine-resistant septic shock in children. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:511–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ceneviva G, Paschall JA, Maffei F, Carcillo JA. Hemodynamic support in fluid-refractory pediatric septic shock. Pediatrics. 1998;102:e19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Brierley J, Carcillo JA, Choong K, Cornell T, DeCaen A, Deymann A, et al. Clinical practice parameters for hemodynamic support of pediatric and neonatal septic shock: 2007 update from the American College of Critical Care Medicine. Crit Care Med. 2009;37:666–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Argenziano M, Chen JM, Choudhri AF, Cullinane S, Garfein E, Weinberg AD, et al. Management of vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery: identification of predisposing factors and use of a novel pressor agent. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998;116:973–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schummer C, Wirsing M, Schummer W. The pivotal role of vasopressin in refractory anaphylactic shock. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:620–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Williams SR, Denault AY, Pellerin M, Martineau R. Vasopressin for treatment of shock following aprotinin administration. Can J Anaesth. 2004;51:169–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chiara LD, Stazi GV, Ricci Z, Polito A, Morelli S, Giorni C, et al. Role of vasopressin in the treatment of anaphylactic shock in a child undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease: a case report. J Med Case Reports. 2008;2:36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meng L, Williams EL. Case report: treatment of rocuronium-induced anaphylactic shock with vasopressin. Can J Anaesth. 2008;55:437–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stadlbauer KH, Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Voelckel WG, Lindner KH. Vasopressin during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock: Less bleeding below the diaphragm, more perfusion above. Anesth Analg. 2005;101:830–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Voelckel WG, Raedler C, Wenzel V, Lindner KH, Krismer AC, Schmittinger CA, et al. Arginine vasopressin, but not epinephrine, improves survival in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock after liver trauma in pigs. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1160–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haas T, Voelckel WG, Wiedermann F, Wenzel V, Lindner KH. Successful resuscitation of a traumatic cardiac arrest victim in hemorrhagic shock with vasopressin: a case report and brief review of the literature. J Trauma. 2004;57:177–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Erkek N, Senel S, Hizli S, Karacan CD. Terlipressin saved the life of a child with severe nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Am J Emerg Med. 2011;29:133. e 5–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Woodhouse SP, Cox S, Boyd P, Case C, Weber M. High dose and standard dose adrenaline do not alter survival compared with placebo in cardiac arrest. Resuscitation. 1995;30:243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Perondi MB, Reis AG, Paiva EF, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA. A comparison of high-dose and standard dose epinephrine in children with cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:1722–1730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stiell IG, Hébert PC, Wells GA, Vandemheen KL, Tang AS, Higginson LA, et al. Vasopressin versus epinephrine for in hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2001;358:105–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Arntz HR, Sitter H, Stadlbauer KH, Lindner KH. A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yilidzdas D, Horoz OO, Erdem S. Beneficial effects of terlipressin in pediatric cardiac arrest. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011;27:865–868.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gil-Antón J, López-Herce J, Morteruel E, Carrillo Á, Rodríguez-Núñez A. Pediatric cardiac arrest refractory to advanced life support: Is there a role for terlipressin? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010;11:139–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Mann K, Berg RA, Nadkarni V. Beneficial effects of vasopressin in prolonged pediatric cardiac arrest: a case series. Resuscitation. 2002;52:149–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carroll TG, Dimas VV, Raymond TT. Vasopressin rescue for in-pediatric intensive care unit cardiopulmonary arrest refractory to initial epinephrine dosing: A prospective feasibility pilot trial. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Duncan MJ, Meaney P, Simpson P, Berg RA, Nadkarni V, Schexnayder S. Vasopressin for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: Results from the American Heart Association National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2009;10:191–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wenzel V, Lindner KH, Prengel AW, Lurie KG, Strohmenger HU. Endobronchial vasopressin improves survival during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. Anesthesiology. 1997;86:1375–1381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Katz K, Lawler J, Wax J, O’Connor R, Nadkarni V. Vasopressin pressor effects in critically ill children during evaluation for brain death and organ recovery. Resuscitation. 2000;47:33–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Papoff P, Caresta E, Versacci P, Grossi R, Midulla F, Moretti C. The role of terlipressin in the management of severe pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Anaesth. 2009;19:805–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stathopoulos L, Nicaise C, Michel F, Thomachot L, Merrot T, Lagier P, et al. Terlipressin as rescue therapy for refractory pulmonary hypertension in a neonate with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:19–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Filippi L, Gozzini E, Daniotti M, Pagliai F, Catarzi S, Fiorini P. Rescue treatment with terlipressin in different scenarios of refractory hypotension in newborns and infants. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12:e237–e241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Scheurer MA, Bradley SM, Atz AM. Vasopressin to attenuate pulmonary hypertension and improve systemic blood pressure after correction of obstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous return. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;129:464–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Baldasso E, Garcia PCR, Piva JP, Branco RG, Tasker RC. Pilot safety study of low-dose vasopressin in non-septic critically ill children. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:355–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khilnani P, Singhi S, Lodha R, Santhanami I, Sachdev A, Chugh K, et al. Pediatric Sepsis Guidelines: Summary for resource-limited countries. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2010;14:41–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kleinman ME, Chameides L, Schexnayder SM, Samson RA, Hazinski MF, Atkins DL, et al. Part 14: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2010;122:876–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Neumar RW, Otto CW, Link MS, Kronick SL, Shuster M, Callaway CW, et al. Part 8. Adult advanced cardiovascular life support. American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:729–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Biarent D, Bingham R, Eich C, López-Herce J, Maconochie I, Rodríguez-Nunez A, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation. 2010;81:1364–1388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Wenzel V, Lindner KH. Employing vasopressin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and vasodilatory shock as a lifesaving vasopressor. Cardiovasc Res. 2001;51:529–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Vasopressins - Compound summary. Available from: URL: Accessed August 30, 2011.
  65. 65.
    Dünser MW, Mayr AJ, Tür A, Pajk W, Barbara F, Knotzer H, et al. Ischemic skin lesions as a complication of continuous vasopressin infusion in catecholamine resistant vasodilatory shock: Incidence and risk factors. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:1394–1398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Rodriguez-Nunez A, Oulego-Erroz I, Gil-Anton J, Perez-Caballero C, Lopez-Herce J, Gaboli M, et al. Continuous terlipressin infusion as rescue treatment in a case series of children with refractory septic shock. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44:1545–1553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bidegain M, Greenberg R, Simmons C, Dang C, Cotten MC, Smith BP. Vasopressin for refractory hypotension in extremely low birth weight infants. J Pediatr. 2010;157:502–504.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ikegami H, Funato M, Tamai H, Wada H, Nabetani M, Nishihara M. Low-dose vasopressin infusion therapy for refractory hypotension in ELBW infants. Pediatr Int. 2010;52:368–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Papoff P, Mancuso M, Barbara CS, Moretti C. The role of terlipressin in pediatric septic shock: A review of the literature and personal experience. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2007;20:213–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rodriguez-Nunez A, Lopez-Herce J, Gil-Anton J, Hernandez A, Rey C. RETSPED: Working Group of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Intensive Care. Rescue treatment with terlipressin in children with refractory septic shock: a clinical study. Crit Care. 2006;10:20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Meyer S, Loffler G, Polcher T, Gottschling S, Gortner L. Vasopressin in catecholamine-resistant septic and cardiogenic shock in very-low-birth weight infants. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1309–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meyer S, Gottschling S, Baghai A, Wurm D, Gortner L. Arginine- vasopressin in catecholamine-refractory septic versus non-septic shock in extremely low birth weight infants with acute renal injury. Crit Care. 2006;10:71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Vasudevan A, Lodha R, Kabra SK. Vasopressin infusion in children with catecholamine resistant septic shock. Acta Pediatr. 2005;94:380–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Matok I, Vard A, Efrati O, Rubinshtein M, Vishne T, Leibovitch L, et al. Terlipressin as rescue therapy for intractable hypotension due to septic shock in children. Shock. 2005;23:305–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Rodriguez-Nunez A, Fernandez-Sanmartin M, Martinon-Torres F, Gonzalez-Alonso N, Martinon-Sanchez JM. Terlipressin for catecholamine-resistant septic shock in children. Intensive Care Med. 2004;30:477–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tobias JD. Arginine vasopressin for refractory distributive shock in two adolescents. J Intensive Care Med. 2002;17:48–52.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Agrawal A, Singh VK, Varma A, Sharma R. Intravenous arginine vasopressin infusion in refractory vasodilatory shock: A clinical study. Indian J Pediatr. 2011 Sep 16 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Burton GL, Kaufman J, Goot BH, da Cruz EM. The use of arginine vasopressin in neonates following the Norwood procedure. Cardiol Young. 2011;21:536–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Alten JA, Borasino S, Toms R, Law MA, Moellinger A, Dabal RJ. Early initiation of arginine vasopressin infusion in neonates after complex cardiac surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Sep 15 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mastropietro CW, Rossi NF, Clark JA, Walters HL III, Delius R, Lieh-Lai M, et al. Relative deficiency of arginine vasopressin in children after cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 2010;38:2052–2058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Matok I, Rubinshtein M, Levy A, Vardi A, Leibovitch L, Mishali D, et al. Terlipressin for children with extremely low cardiac output after open heart surgery. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43:423–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mastropietro CW, Clark JA, Delius RE, Walters HL III, Sarnaik AP. Arginine-vasopressin to manage hypoxic infants after stage I palliation of single ventricle lesions. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008;9:506–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lechner E, Hofer A, Mair R, Moosbauer W, Sames-Dolzer E, Tulzer G. Arginine -vasopressin in neonates with vasodilatory shock after cardiopulmonary bypass. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:1221–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosenzweig EB, Starc TJ, Chen JM, Cullinane S, Timchak DM, Gersony WM, et al. Intravenous arginine-vasopressin in children with vasodilatory shock after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999;100(19 Suppl):II182–II186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jerath N, Frndova H, McCrindle BW, Gurofsky R, Humpl T. Clinical impact of vasopressin infusion on hemodynamics, liver and renal function in pediatric patients. Intensive Care Med. 2008;34:1274–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Masutani S, Senzaki H, Ishido H, Taketazu M, Matsunaga T, Kobayashi T, et al. Vasopressin in the treatment of vasodilatory shock in children. Pediatr Int. 2005;47:132–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Efrati O, Modan-Moses D, Vardi A, Matok I, Bazilay Z, Paret G. Intravenous arginine vasopressin in critically ill children: Is it beneficial? Shock. 2004;22:213–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Matok I, Vardi A, Augarten A, Efrati O, Leibovitch L, Rubinshtien M, et al. Beneficial effects of terlipressin in prolonged pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A case series. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:1161–1164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amit Agrawal
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  • Vishal K. Singh
    • 2
  • Amit Varma
    • 2
  • Rajesh Sharma
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsChirayu Medical College and HospitalBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Critical Care MedicineEscorts Heart Institute and Research CenterNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Pediatric Cardiac SurgeryEscorts Heart Institute and Research CenterNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Near Nizamuddin ColonyIndrapuri, BhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations