, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 995–1005 | Cite as

Inclusion Body Myositis: Update on Pathogenesis and Treatment

  • Elie Naddaf
  • Richard J. Barohn
  • Mazen M. DimachkieEmail author


Inclusion body myositis is the most common acquired myopathy after the age of 50. It is characterized by progressive asymmetric weakness predominantly affecting the quadriceps and/or finger flexors. Loss of ambulation and dysphagia are major complications of the disease. Inclusion body myositis can be associated with cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1A antibodies. Muscle biopsy usually shows inflammatory cells surrounding and invading non-necrotic muscle fibers, rimmed vacuoles, congophilic inclusions, and protein aggregates. Disease pathogenesis remains poorly understood and consists of an interplay between inflammatory and degenerative pathways. Antigen-driven, clonally restricted, cytotoxic T cells represent a main feature of the inflammatory component, whereas abnormal protein homeostasis with protein misfolding, aggregation, and dysfunctional protein disposal is the hallmark of the degenerative component. Inclusion body myositis remains refractory to treatment. Better understanding of the disease pathogenesis led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, addressing both the inflammatory and degenerative pathways.

Key Words

Inclusion body myositis idiopathic inflammatory myopathies muscle homeostasis immunotherapy neurodegenerative disorder. 



This work was supported by a Clinical and Translational Science Awards grant from National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences awarded to the University of Kansas Medical Center for Frontiers: The Heartland Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (# UL1TR000001). The contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health or National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elie Naddaf
    • 1
  • Richard J. Barohn
    • 2
  • Mazen M. Dimachkie
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Neuromuscular Medicine Division, Department of NeurologyMayo ClinicRochesterUSA
  2. 2.Neuromuscular Medicine Division, Department of NeurologyUniversity of Kansas Medical CenterKansas CityUSA

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