, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 128–133 | Cite as

Invasive Neuromodulation for the Treatment of Pediatric Epilepsy

  • Laureen D. Hachem
  • Han Yan
  • George M. IbrahimEmail author


Neuromodulatory strategies are increasingly adopted for the treatment of intractable epilepsy in children. These encompass a wide range of treatments aimed at externally stimulating neural circuitry in order to decrease seizure frequency. In the current review, the authors discuss the evidence for invasive neuromodulation, namely vagus nerve and deep brain stimulation in affected children. Putative mechanisms of action and biomarkers of treatment success are explored and evidence of the efficacy of invasive neuromodulation is highlighted.

Key Words

Biomarkers epilepsy deep brain stimulation seizures vagus nerve stimulation 

Supplementary material

13311_2018_685_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (718 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 717 kb)


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Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laureen D. Hachem
    • 1
  • Han Yan
    • 1
  • George M. Ibrahim
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of SurgeryUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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