, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 465–474 | Cite as

Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders

  • Paul S. Larson


Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an implanted electrical device that modulates specific targets in the brain resulting in symptomatic improvement in a particular neurologic disease, most commonly a movement disorder. It is preferred over previously used lesioning procedures due to its reversibility, adjustability, and ability to be used bilaterally with a good safety profile. Risks of DBS include intracranial bleeding, infection, malposition, and hardware issues, such migration, disconnection, or malfunction, but the risk of each of these complications is low—generally ≤ 5% at experienced, large-volume centers. It has been used widely in essential tremor, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia when medical treatment becomes ineffective, intolerable owing to side effects, or causes motor complications. Brain targets implanted include the thalamus (most commonly for essential tremor), subthalamic nucleus (most commonly for Parkinson’s disease), and globus pallidus (Parkinson’s disease and dystonia), although new targets are currently being explored. Future developments include brain electrodes that can steer current directionally and systems capable of “closed loop” stimulation, with systems that can record and interpret regional brain activity and modify stimulation parameters in a clinically meaningful way. New, image-guided implantation techniques may have advantages over traditional DBS surgery.


Deep brain stimulation Movement disorders Essential tremor Parkinson’s disease Dystonia 

Supplementary material

13311_2014_274_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.2 mb)
ESM 1 (PDF 1224 kb)


  1. 1.
    Agnesi F, Johnson MD, Vitek JL. Deep brain stimulation: how does it work? Handb Clin Neurol 2013;116:39-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Li Q, Qian ZM, Arbuthnott GW, Ke Y, Yung WH. Cortical effects of deep brain stimulation: implications for pathogenesis and treatment of Parkinson disease. JAMA Neurol 2014;71:100-103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arle JE, Mei LZ, Shils JL. Modeling parkinsonian circuitry and the DBS electrode. I. Biophysical background and software. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2008;86:1-15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shils JL, Mei LZ, Arle JE. Modeling parkinsonian circuitry and the DBS electrode. II. Evaluation of a computer simulation model of the basal ganglia with and without subthalamic nucleus stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2008;86:16-29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang JY, Shi LH, Luo F, Zhang WM, Woodward DJ. Studies of the neural mechanisms of deep brain stimulation in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2008;32:352-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fox SH, Katzenschlager R, Lim SY, Ravina B, Seppi K, Coelho M, et al. The Movement Disorder Society Evidence-Based Medicine Review Update: Treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Move Disord 2011;26(Suppl. 3):S2-41.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weaver FM, Follett K, Stern M, Hur K, Harris C, Marks WJ, Jr, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation vs best medical therapy for patients with advanced Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2009;301:63-73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benabid AL, Pollak P, Gervason C, Hoffmann D, Gao DM, Hommel M, et al. Long-term suppression of tremor by chronic stimulation of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus. Lancet 1991;337:403-406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Blond S, Siegfried J. Thalamic stimulation for the treatment of tremor and other movement disorders. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien) 1991;52:109-111.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nagaseki Y, Shibazaki T, Hirai T, Kawashima Y, Hirato M, Wada H, et al. Long-term follow-up results of selective VIM-thalamotomy. J Neurosurg 1986;65:296-302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laitinen LV, Bergenheim AT, Hariz MI. Ventroposterolateral pallidotomy can abolish all parkinsonian symptoms. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1992;58:14-21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Laitinen LV, Bergenheim AT, Hariz MI. Leksell's posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosurg 1992;76:53-61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Intemann PM, Masterman D, Subramanian I, DeSalles A, Behnke E, Frysinger R, et al. Staged bilateral pallidotomy for treatment of Parkinson disease. J Neurosurg 2001;94:437-444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schuurman PR, Bosch DA, Merkus MP, Speelman JD. Long-term follow-up of thalamic stimulation versus thalamotomy for tremor suppression. Move Disord 2008;23:1146-1153.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tasker RR. Deep brain stimulation is preferable to thalamotomy for tremor suppression. Surg Neurol 1998;49:145-153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dams J, Siebert U, Bornschein B, Volkmann J, Deuschl G, Oertel WH, et al. Cost-effectiveness of deep brain stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease. Move Disord 2013;28:763-771.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eggington S, Valldeoriola F, Chaudhuri KR, Ashkan K, Annoni E, Deuschl G. The cost-effectiveness of deep brain stimulation in combination with best medical therapy, versus best medical therapy alone, in advanced Parkinson's disease. J Neurol 2014;261:106-116.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fenoy AJ, Simpson RK, Jr. Risks of common complications in deep brain stimulation surgery: management and avoidance. J Neurosurg 2014;120:132-139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sillay KA, Larson PS, Starr PA. Deep brain stimulator hardware-related infections: incidence and management in a large series. Neurosurgery 2008;62:360-366.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Piacentino M, Pilleri M, Bartolomei L. Hardware-related infections after deep brain stimulation surgery: review of incidence, severity and management in 212 single-center procedures in the first year after implantation. Acta Neurochir 2011;153:2337-2341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Binder DK, Rau G, Starr PA. Hemorrhagic complications of microelectrode-guided deep brain stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2003;80:28-31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Falowski S, Ooi YC, Smith A, Verhargen Metman L, Bakay RA. An evaluation of hardware and surgical complications with deep brain stimulation based on diagnosis and lead location. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2012;90:173-180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dogu O, Sevim S, Camdeviren H, Sasmaz T, Bugdayci R, Aral M, et al. Prevalence of essential tremor: door-to-door neurologic exams in Mersin Province, Turkey. Neurology 2003;61:1804-1806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rautakorpi I, Takala J, Marttila RJ, Sievers K, Rinne UK. Essential tremor in a Finnish population. Acta Neurol Scand 1982;66:58-67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Louis ED, Ottman R, Hauser WA. How common is the most common adult movement disorder? estimates of the prevalence of essential tremor throughout the world. Move Disord 1998;13:5-10.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lundervold DA, Ament PA, Holt P. Social anxiety, tremor severity, and tremor disability: a search for clinically relevant measures. Psychiatry J 2013;2013:257459.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Deuschl G, Elble R. Essential tremor—neurodegenerative or nondegenerative disease towards a working definition of ET. Move Disord 2009;24:2033-2041.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zesiewicz TA, Shaw JD, Allison KG, Staffetti JS, Okun MS, Sullivan KL. Update on treatment of essential tremor. Curr Treat Options Neurol 2013;15:410-423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Deuschl G, Raethjen J, Hellriegel H, Elble R. Treatment of patients with essential tremor. Lancet Neurol 2011;10:148-161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Kagnoff MN, Jimenez-Shahed J, Fekete R, Jankovic J. The safety and efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation in essential tremor: 10 years and beyond. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014;85:567-572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang K, Bhatia S, Oh MY, Cohen D, Angle C, Whiting D. Long-term results of thalamic deep brain stimulation for essential tremor. J Neurosurg 2010;112:1271-1276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pilitsis JG, Metman LV, Toleikis JR, Hughes LE, Sani SB, Bakay RA. Factors involved in long-term efficacy of deep brain stimulation of the thalamus for essential tremor. J Neurosurg 2008;109:640-646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Blomstedt P, Hariz GM, Hariz MI, Koskinen LO. Thalamic deep brain stimulation in the treatment of essential tremor: a long-term follow-up. Br J Neurosurg 2007;21:504-509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Limousin P, Speelman JD, Gielen F, Janssens M. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in parkinsonian and essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1999;66:289-296.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sydow O, Thobois S, Alesch F, Speelman JD. Multicentre European study of thalamic stimulation in essential tremor: a six year follow up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:1387-1391.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rehncrona S, Johnels B, Widner H, Tornqvist AL, Hariz M, Sydow O. Long-term efficacy of thalamic deep brain stimulation for tremor: double-blind assessments. Move Disord 2003;18:163-170.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Putzke JD, Uitti RJ, Obwegeser AA, Wszolek ZK, Wharen RE. Bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation: midline tremor control. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005;76:684-690.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pahwa R, Lyons KL, Wilkinson SB, Carpenter MA, Troster AI, Searl JP, et al. Bilateral thalamic stimulation for the treatment of essential tremor. Neurology 1999;53:1447-1450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Benabid AL, Pollak P, Gao D, Hoffmann D, Limousin P, Gay E, et al. Chronic electrical stimulation of the ventralis intermedius nucleus of the thalamus as a treatment of movement disorders. J Neurosurg 1996;84:203-214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Favilla CG, Ullman D, Wagle Shukla A, Foote KD, Jacobson CEt, Okun MS. Worsening essential tremor following deep brain stimulation: disease progression versus tolerance. Brain 2012;135:1455-1462.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Murata J, Kitagawa M, Uesugi H, Saito H, Iwasaki Y, Kikuchi S, et al. Electrical stimulation of the posterior subthalamic area for the treatment of intractable proximal tremor. J Neurosurg 2003;99:708-715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Plaha P, Patel NK, Gill SS. Stimulation of the subthalamic region for essential tremor. J Neurosurg 2004;101:48-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hamel W, Herzog J, Kopper F, Pinsker M, Weinert D, Muller D, et al. Deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic area is more effective than nucleus ventralis intermedius stimulation for bilateral intention tremor. Acta Neurochir 2007;149:749-758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Blomstedt P, Sandvik U, Tisch S. Deep brain stimulation in the posterior subthalamic area in the treatment of essential tremor. Move Disord 2010;25:1350-1356.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fytagoridis A, Sandvik U, Astrom M, Bergenheim T, Blomstedt P. Long term follow-up of deep brain stimulation of the caudal zona incerta for essential tremor. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012;83:258-262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Blomstedt P, Lindvall P, Linder J, Olivecrona M, Forsgren L, Hariz MI. Reoperation after failed deep brain stimulation for essential tremor. World Neurosurg 2012;78:554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Blomstedt P, Sandvik U, Hariz MI, Fytagoridis A, Forsgren L, Hariz GM, et al. Influence of age, gender and severity of tremor on outcome after thalamic and subthalamic DBS for essential tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2011;17:617-620.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hirtz D, Thurman DJ, Gwinn-Hardy K, Mohamed M, Chaudhuri AR, Zalutsky R. How common are the "common" neurologic disorders? Neurology 2007;68:326-337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dorsey ER, Constantinescu R, Thompson JP, Biglan KM, Holloway RG, Kieburtz K, et al. Projected number of people with Parkinson disease in the most populous nations, 2005 through 2030. Neurology 2007;68:384-386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kowal SL, Dall TM, Chakrabarti R, Storm MV, Jain A. The current and projected economic burden of Parkinson's disease in the United States. Move Disord 2013;28:311-318.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schrag A, Schott JM. Epidemiological, clinical, and genetic characteristics of early-onset parkinsonism. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:355-363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mestre T, Ferreira JJ. Pharmacotherapy in Parkinson's disease: case studies. Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2010;3:117-126.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jankovic J, Poewe W. Therapies in Parkinson's disease. Curr Opin Neurol 2012;25:433-447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stamelou M, Hoeglinger GU. Atypical parkinsonism: an update. Curr Opin Neurol 2013;26:401-405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wenning GK, Krismer F, Poewe W. New insights into atypical parkinsonism. Curr Opin Neurol 2011;24:331-338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Okun MS, Fernandez HH, Pedraza O, Misra M, Lyons KE, Pahwa R, et al. Development and initial validation of a screening tool for Parkinson disease surgical candidates. Neurology 2004;63:161-163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Siderowf A, McDermott M, Kieburtz K, Blindauer K, Plumb S, Shoulson I, et al. Test-retest reliability of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale in patients with early Parkinson's disease: results from a multicenter clinical trial. Move Disord 2002;17:758-763.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Goetz CG, Tilley BC, Shaftman SR, Stebbins GT, Fahn S, Martinez-Martin P, et al. Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS): scale presentation and clinimetric testing results. Move Disord 2008;23:2129-2170.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goetz CG, Poewe W, Rascol O, Sampaio C, Stebbins GT, Counsell C, et al. Movement Disorder Society Task Force report on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale: status and recommendations. Move Disord 2004;19:1020-1028.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Rodriguez RL, Fernandez HH, Haq I, Okun MS. Pearls in patient selection for deep brain stimulation. Neurologist 2007;13:253-260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lang AE, Houeto JL, Krack P, Kubu C, Lyons KE, Moro E, et al. Deep brain stimulation: preoperative issues. Move Disord 2006;21(Suppl. 14):S171-196.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Uc EY, Follett KA. Deep brain stimulation in movement disorders. Semin Neurol 2007;27:170-182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Follett KA, Weaver FM, Stern M, Hur K, Harris CL, Luo P, et al. Pallidal versus subthalamic deep-brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. N Engl J Med 2010;362:2077-2091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sako W, Miyazaki Y, Izumi Y, Kaji R. Which target is best for patients with Parkinson's disease? A meta-analysis of pallidal and subthalamic stimulation. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2014 Jan 20 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lukins TR, Tisch S, Jonker B. The latest evidence on target selection in deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. J Clin Neurosci 2014;21:22-27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Odekerken VJ, van Laar T, Staal MJ, Mosch A, Hoffmann CF, Nijssen PC, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus globus pallidus bilateral deep brain stimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease (NSTAPS study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2013;12:37-44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Plaha P, Ben-Shlomo Y, Patel NK, Gill SS. Stimulation of the caudal zona incerta is superior to stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in improving contralateral parkinsonism. Brain 2006;129:1732-1747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Blomstedt P, Fytagoridis A, Astrom M, Linder J, Forsgren L, Hariz MI. Unilateral caudal zona incerta deep brain stimulation for Parkinsonian tremor. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012;18:1062-1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kitagawa M, Murata J, Uesugi H, Kikuchi S, Saito H, Tashiro K, et al. Two-year follow-up of chronic stimulation of the posterior subthalamic white matter for tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease. Neurosurgery 2005;56:281-289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tattersall TL, Stratton PG, Coyne TJ, Cook R, Silberstein P, Silburn PA, et al. Imagined gait modulates neuronal network dynamics in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. Nat Neurosci 2014;17:449-454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Grabli D, Karachi C, Folgoas E, Monfort M, Tande D, Clark S, et al. Gait disorders in parkinsonian monkeys with pedunculopontine nucleus lesions: a tale of two systems. J Neurosci 2013;33:11986-11993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Stefani A, Lozano AM, Peppe A, Stanzione P, Galati S, Tropepi D, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the pedunculopontine and subthalamic nuclei in severe Parkinson's disease. Brain 2007;130:1596-1607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ferraye MU, Debu B, Fraix V, Krack P, Charbardes S, Seigneuret E, et al. Subthalamic nucleus versus pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation in Parkinson disease: synergy or antagonism? J Neural Transm 2011;118:1469-1475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thevathasan W, Cole MH, Graepel CL, Hyam JA, Jenkinson N, Brittain JS, et al. A spatiotemporal analysis of gait freezing and the impact of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Brain 2012;135:1446-1454.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thevathasan W, Coyne TJ, Hyam JA, Kerr G, Jenkinson N, Aziz TZ, et al. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation improves gait freezing in Parkinson disease. Neurosurgery 2011;69:1248-1253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    deSouza RM, Moro E, Lang AE, Schapira AH. Timing of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson disease: a need for reappraisal? Ann Neurol 2013;73:565-575.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schuepbach WM, Rau J, Knudsen K, Volkmann J, Krack P, Timmermann L, et al. Neurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early motor complications. N Engl J Med 2013;368:610-622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Fahn S. Classification of movement disorders. Move Disord 2011;26:947-957.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ozelius LJ, Hewett J, Kramer P, Bressman SB, Shalish C, de Leon D, et al. Fine localization of the torsion dystonia gene (DYT1) on human chromosome 9q34: YAC map and linkage disequilibrium. Genome Res 1997;7:483-494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vercueil L, Pollak P, Fraix V, Caputo E, Moro E, Benazzouz A, et al. Deep brain stimulation in the treatment of severe dystonia. J Neurol 2001;248:695-700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Spindler MA, Galifianakis NB, Wilkinson JR, Duda JE. Globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation for tardive dyskinesia: case report and review of the literature. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2013;19:141-147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Marks WA, Honeycutt J, Acosta F, Jr., Reed M, Bailey L, Pomykal A, et al. Dystonia due to cerebral palsy responds to deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Move Disord 2011;26:1748-1751.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Witt J, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Use of pallidal deep brain stimulation in postinfarct hemidystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2013;91:243-247.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Svetel M, Kozic D, Stefanova E, Semnic R, Dragasevic N, Kostic VS. Dystonia in Wilson's disease. Move Disord 2001;16:719-723.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jankovic J. Medical treatment of dystonia. Move Disord 2013;28:1001-1012.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Berman BD, Starr PA, Marks WJ, Jr, Ostrem JL. Induction of bradykinesia with pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cranial-cervical dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2009;87:37-44.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Zauber SE, Watson N, Comella CL, Bakay RA, Metman LV. Stimulation-induced parkinsonism after posteroventral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus internus for craniocervical dystonia. J Neurosurg 2009;110:229-233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Volkmann J, Wolters A, Kupsch A, Muller J, Kuhn AA, Schneider GH, et al. Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with primary generalised or segmental dystonia: 5-year follow-up of a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol 2012;11:1029-1038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pahapill PA, O'Connell B. Long-term follow-up study of chronic deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus for cervical dystonia. Neuromodulation 2010;13:26-30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ostrem JL, Racine CA, Glass GA, Grace JK, Volz MM, Heath SL, et al. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in primary cervical dystonia. Neurology 2011;76:870-878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kleiner-Fisman G, Liang GS, Moberg PJ, Ruocco AC, Hurtig HI, Baltuch GH, et al. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation for severe idiopathic dystonia: impact on severity, neuropsychological status, and quality of life. J Neurosurg 2007;107:29-36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fukaya C, Katayama Y, Kano T, Nagaoka T, Kobayashi K, Oshima H, et al. Thalamic deep brain stimulation for writer's cramp. J Neurosurg 2007;107:977-982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ghika J, Villemure JG, Miklossy J, Temperli P, Pralong E, Christen-Zaech S, et al. Postanoxic generalized dystonia improved by bilateral Voa thalamic deep brain stimulation. Neurology 2002;58:311-313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Schjerling L, Hjermind LE, Jespersen B, Madsen FF, Brennum J, Jensen SR, et al. A randomized double-blind crossover trial comparing subthalamic and pallidal deep brain stimulation for dystonia. J Neurosurg 2013;119:1537-1545.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Coubes P, Cif L, El Fertit H, Hemm S, Vayssiere N, Serrat S, et al. Electrical stimulation of the globus pallidus internus in patients with primary generalized dystonia: long-term results. J Neurosurg 2004;101:189-194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Cif L, El Fertit H, Vayssiere N, Hemm S, Hardouin E, Gannau A, et al. Treatment of dystonic syndromes by chronic electrical stimulation of the internal globus pallidus. J Neurosurg Sci 2003;47:52-55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vidailhet M, Vercueil L, Houeto JL, Krystkowiak P, Benabid AL, Cornu P, et al. Bilateral deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus in primary generalized dystonia. N Engl J Med 2005;352:459-467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kupsch A, Benecke R, Muller J, Trottenberg T, Schneider GH, Poewe W, et al. Pallidal deep-brain stimulation in primary generalized or segmental dystonia. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1978-1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Valldeoriola F, Regidor I, Minguez-Castellanos A, Lezcano E, Garcia-Ruiz P, Rojo A, et al. Efficacy and safety of pallidal stimulation in primary dystonia: results of the Spanish multicentric study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010;81:65-69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Damier P, Thobois S, Witjas T, Cuny E, Derost P, Raoul S, et al. Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus to treat tardive dyskinesia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007;64:170-176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Chang EF, Schrock LE, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Long-term benefit sustained after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory tardive dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2010;88:304-310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vidailhet M, Yelnik J, Lagrange C, Fraix V, Grabli D, Thobois S, et al. Bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation for the treatment of patients with dystonia-choreoathetosis cerebral palsy: a prospective pilot study. Lancet Neurol 2009;8:709-717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Koy A, Hellmich M, Pauls KA, Marks W, Lin JP, Fricke O, et al. Effects of deep brain stimulation in dyskinetic cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis. Move Disord 2013;28:647-654.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Skogseid IM, Ramm-Pettersen J, Volkmann J, Kerty E, Dietrichs E, Roste GK. Good long-term efficacy of pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia: a prospective, observer-blinded study. Eur J Neurol 2012;19:610-615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hung SW, Hamani C, Lozano AM, Poon YY, Piboolnurak P, Miyasaki JM, et al. Long-term outcome of bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation for primary cervical dystonia. Neurology 2007;68:457-459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Kiss ZH, Doig-Beyaert K, Eliasziw M, Tsui J, Haffenden A, Suchowersky O, et al. The Canadian multicentre study of deep brain stimulation for cervical dystonia. Brain 2007;130:2879-2886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Walsh RA, Sidiropoulos C, Lozano AM, Hodaie M, Poon YY, Fallis M, et al. Bilateral pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia: blinded evidence of benefit beyond 5 years. Brain 2013;136:761-769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Beuter A, Lefaucheur JP, Modolo J. Closed-loop cortical neuromodulation in Parkinson's disease: An alternative to deep brain stimulation? Clin Neurophysiol 2014;125:874-885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Rosin B, Slovik M, Mitelman R, Rivlin-Etzion M, Haber SN, Israel Z, et al. Closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating parkinsonism. Neuron 2011;72:370-384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morrell MJ, Group RNSSiES. Responsive cortical stimulation for the treatment of medically intractable partial epilepsy. Neurology 2011;77:1295-1304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ryapolova-Webb E, Afshar P, Stanslaski S, Denison T, de Hemptinne C, Bankiewicz K, et al. Chronic cortical and electromyographic recordings from a fully implantable device: preclinical experience in a nonhuman primate. J Neural Eng 2014;11:016009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shimamoto SA, Ryapolova-Webb ES, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Miller KJ, Starr PA. Subthalamic nucleus neurons are synchronized to primary motor cortex local field potentials in Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci 2013;33:7220-7233.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Air EL, Ryapolova-Webb E, de Hemptinne C, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Larson PS, et al. Acute effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation and thalamotomy on sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in essential tremor. Clin Neurophysiol 2012;123:2232-2238.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Starr PA, Christine CW, Theodosopoulos PV, Lindsey N, Byrd D, Mosley A, et al. Implantation of deep brain stimulators into the subthalamic nucleus: technical approach and magnetic resonance imaging-verified lead locations. J Neurosurg 2002;97:370-387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Martin AJ, Larson PS, Ostrem JL, Starr PA. Interventional magnetic resonance guidance of deep brain stimulator implantation for Parkinson disease. Top Magn Reson Imaging 2009;19:213-221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Starr PA, Martin AJ, Larson PS. Implantation of deep brain stimulator electrodes using interventional MRI. Neurosurg Clin North Am 2009;20:193-203.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Starr PA, Martin AJ, Ostrem JL, Talke P, Levesque N, Larson PS. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulator placement using high-field interventional magnetic resonance imaging and a skull-mounted aiming device: technique and application accuracy. J Neurosurg 2010;112:479-490.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Larson PS, Starr PA, Bates G, Tansey L, Richardson RM, Martin AJ. An optimized system for interventional magnetic resonance imaging-guided stereotactic surgery: preliminary evaluation of targeting accuracy. Neurosurgery 2012;70(1 Suppl. Operative):95-103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Markun LC, Grace JK, Martin AJ, Starr PA, et al. Clinical outcomes of PD patients having bilateral STN DBS using high-field interventional MR-imaging for lead placement. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2013;115:708-712.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Burchiel KJ, McCartney S, Lee A, Raslan AM. Accuracy of deep brain stimulation electrode placement using intraoperative computed tomography without microelectrode recording. J Neurosurg 2013;119:301-306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Strauss I, Kalia SK, Lozano AM. Where are we with surgical therapies for Parkinson's disease? Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014;20(Suppl. 1):S187-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Elias WJ, Huss D, Voss T, Loomba J, Khaled M, Zadicario E, et al. A pilot study of focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor. N Engl J Med 2013;369:640-648.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Neurological SurgeryUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations