, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 518–530 | Cite as

Treatment for Co-Occurring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Naomi Ornstein Davis
  • Scott H. Kollins


Interest in the co-occurrence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has grown in the last decade. Research on clinical populations supports the frequent co-occurrence of ADHD traits (e.g., hyperactivity) in individuals with ASD and ASD traits (e.g., social communication deficits) in individuals with ADHD. Similar trends in co-occurring traits have been observed in population-based samples, as well as family and genetic studies of affected individuals. Despite increased interest in co-occurring ADHD and ASD, relatively little research has been devoted to treatment considerations. The vast majority of intervention research has examined pharmacological treatment using traditional ADHD medications. Relatively few psychosocial interventions have directly addressed co-occurring symptoms. Treatment development will benefit from enhanced understanding of the phenomenon of co-occurring ADHD and ASD. Key topics for future research include examining developmental trajectories of co-occurring disorders, comorbid psychiatric conditions, deficits in social skills, and the nature of executive functioning impairment in individuals with co-occurring ADHD and ASD. In the current review, research in these areas is reviewed along with recommendation for future study. Given that clinicians are routinely observing and treating individuals with co-occurring symptoms, further research will yield needed information to inform intervention development and maximize benefits for affected individuals.

Key Words

ADHD autism spectrum disorder psychopharmacology psychosocial treatment 


Required Author Forms

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the online version of this article.

Supplementary material

13311_2012_126_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (510 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 510 kb)


  1. 1.
    Boyle CA, Boulet S, Schieve LA, et al. Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics 2011;127:1034–1042.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reiersen AM, Todd RD. Co-occurrence of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders: phenomenology and treatment. Expert Rev Neurother 2008;8:657–669.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th ed. text rev. Washington, DC: Author; 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    World Health Organization. ICD-10 Classifications of mental and behavioural disorder: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1992.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee DO, Ousley OY. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in a clinic sample of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2006;16:737–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Goldstein S, Schwebach AJ. The comorbidity of Pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a retrospective chart review. J Autism Dev Disord 2004;34:329–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Pomeroy J. ADHD symptom subtypes in children with pervasive developmental disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 2006;36:271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mulligan A, Anney RJ, O'Regan M, et al. Autism symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a familial trait which correlates with conduct, oppositional defiant, language and motor disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2009;39:197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    St. Pourcain B, Mandy WP, Heron J, Golding J, Davey Smith G, Skuse DH. Links between co-occurring social-communication and hyperactive-inattentive trait trajectories. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;50:892–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ronald A, Edelson LR, Asherson P, Saudino KJ. Exploring the relationship between autistic-like traits and ADHD behaviors in early childhood: findings from a community twin study of 2-year-olds. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010;38:185–196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gargaro BA, Rinehart NJ, Bradshaw JL, Tonge BJ, Sheppard DM. Autism and ADHD: how far have we come in the comorbidity debate? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011;35:1081–1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nijmeijer JS, Hoekstra PJ, Minderaa RB, et al. PDD symptoms in ADHD, an independent familial trait? J Abnorm Child Psychol 2009;37:443–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Smalley SL, Kustanovich V, Minassian SL, et al. Genetic linkage of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on chromosome 16p13, in a region implicated in autism. Am J Hum Genet 2002;71:959–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rommelse NN, Franke B, Geurts HM, Hartman CA, Buitelaar JK. Shared heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010;19:281–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reiersen AM, Constantino JN, Grimmer M, Martin NG, Todd RD. Evidence for shared genetic influences on self-reported ADHD and autistic symptoms in young adult Australian twins. Twin Res Hum Genet 2008;11:579–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Franke B, Neale B, Faraone S. Genome-wide association studies in ADHD. Hum Genet 2009;126:13–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rommelse NN, Geurts HM, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Hartman CA. A review on cognitive and brain endophenotypes that may be common in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and facilitate the search for pleiotropic genes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2011;35:1363–1396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Grzadzinski R, Di Martino A, Brady E, et al. Examining autistic traits in children with ADHD: does the autism spectrum extend to ADHD? J Autism Dev Disord 2011;41:1178–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Schneider J. Comparative study of children with ADHD only, autism spectrum disorder + ADHD, and chronic multiple tic disorder + ADHD. J Atten Disord 2009;12:474–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guttmann-Steinmetz S, Gadow KD, Devincent CJ. Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder behaviors in boys with autism spectrum disorder with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder versus several comparison samples. J Autism Dev Disord 2009;39:976–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vora P, Sikora D. Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics; San Antonio, TX; 2011.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frazier TW, Shattuck PT, Narendorf SC, Cooper BP, Wagner M, Spitznagel EL. Prevalence and correlates of psychotropic medication use in adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder with and without caregiver-reported attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2011;21:571–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Antshel KM, Polacek C, McMahon M, et al. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2011;32:439–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology (RUPP) Autism Network. Randomized, controlled, crossover trial of methylphenidate in pervasive developmental disorders with hyperactivity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:1266–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Swanson JM, Volkow ND. Psychopharmacology: concepts and opinions about the use of stimulant medications. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2009;50:180–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Greenhill LL, Pliszka S, Dulcan MK, et al. Practice parameter for the use of stimulant medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Academy Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2002;41(2 suppl):26S–49S.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Canitano R, Scandurra V. Psychopharmacology in autism: an update. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011;35:18–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Canitano R, Scandurra V. Risperidone in the treatment of behavioral disorders associated with autism in children and adolescents. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2008;4:723–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Curran MP. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in paediatric patients: profile report. CNS Drugs 2011;25:801–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Williams K, Wheeler DM, Silove N, Hazell P. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010;8. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004677.pub2.
  31. 31.
    Wink LK, Plawecki MH, Erickson CA, Stigler KA, McDougle CJ. Emerging drugs for the treatment of symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders. Expert opinion on emerging drugs. 2010;15:481–494.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Langworthy-Lam KS, Aman MG, Van Bourgondien ME. Prevalence and patterns of use of psychoactive medicines in individuals with autism in the Autism Society of North Carolina. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacology 2002;12:311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aman MG, Lam KS, Van Bourgondien ME. Medication patterns in patients with autism: temporal, regional, and demographic influences. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2005;15:116–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Scahill L, Pachler M. Treatment of hyperactivity in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs 2007;20:59–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Handen BL, Taylor J, Tumuluru R. Psychopharmacological treatment of ADHD symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorder. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2011;23:167–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hazell P. Drug therapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like symptoms in autistic disorder. J Paediatr Child Health 2007;43:19–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Aman MG, Farmer CA, Hollway J, Arnold LE. Treatment of inattention, overactivity, and impulsiveness in autism spectrum disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2008;17:713–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greenhill L, Kollins S, Abikoff H, et al. Efficacy and safety of immediate-release methylphenidate treatment for preschoolers with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:1284–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Greenhill LL, Abikoff HB, Arnold LE, et al. Medication treatment strategies in the MTA Study: relevance to clinicians and researchers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35:1304–1313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ghuman J, Aman MG, Lecavalier L, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of methylphenidate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in preschoolers with developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Santosh PJ, Baird G, Pityaratstian N, Tavare E, Gringras P. Impact of comorbid autism spectrum disorders on stimulant response in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a retrospective and prospective effectiveness study. Child Care Health Dev 2006;32:575–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Murray MJ. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the context of autism spectrum disorders. Current Psychiatry Rep 2010;12:382–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Arnold LE, Aman MG, Cook AM, et al. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45(10):1196–205. Epub 2006/09/28.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zeiner P, Gjevik E, Weidle B. Response to atomoxetine in boys with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Acta Paediatr 2011;100:1258–1261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Posey DJ, Wiegand RE, Wilkerson J, Maynard M, Stigler KA, McDougle CJ. Open-label atomoxetine for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms associated with high-functioning pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2006;16:599–610.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Charnsil C. Efficacy of atomoxetine in children with severe autistic disorders and symptoms of ADHD: an open-label study. J Atten Disord 2011;15:684–689.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Connor DF, Rubin J. Guanfacine extended release in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Drugs Today (Barc). 2010;46:299–314.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Posey DJ, Puntney JI, Sasher TM, Kem DL, McDougle CJ. Guanfacine treatment of hyperactivity and inattention in pervasive developmental disorders: a retrospective analysis of 80 cases. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2004;14:233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Scahill L, Aman MG, McDougle CJ, et al. A prospective open trial of guanfacine in children with pervasive developmental disorders. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2006;16:589–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jahromi LB, Kasari CL, McCracken JT, et al. Positive effects of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity. J Autism Dev Disord 2009;39:395–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dawson G, Burner K. Behavioral interventions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a review of recent findings. Curr Opin Pediatr 2011;23:616–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Knight LA, Rooney M, Chronis-Tuscano A. Psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2008;10:412–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    AACAP. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2007;46:894–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Safren SA. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to ADHD treatment in adulthood. J Clin Psychiatry 2006;67(suppl 8):46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    de Boo GM, Prins PJ. Social incompetence in children with ADHD: possible moderators and mediators in social-skills training. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;27:78–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leblanc LA, Gillis JM. Behavioral interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatr Clin North Am 2012;59:147–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vismara LA, Rogers SJ. Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: what do we know? Ann Rev Clinical Psychol 2010;6:447–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brookman-Frazee L, Stahmer A, Baker-Ericzen MJ, Tsai K. Parenting interventions for children with autism spectrum and disruptive behavior disorders: opportunities for cross-fertilization. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2006;9:181–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Barkley RA. Defiant children: a clinician's manual for assessment and parent training. New York: Guilford Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    McMahon RJ, Forehand RL, Foster SL. Helping the noncompliant child. New York: Guilford Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Steiner AM, Koegel LK, Koegel RL, Ence WA. Issues and theoretical constructs regarding parent education for autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1194-0.
  62. 62.
    Moderators and mediators of treatment response for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the Multimodal Treatment Study of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:1088–1096.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Aman MG, McDougle CJ, Scahill L, et al. Medication and parent training in children with pervasive developmental disorders and serious behavior problems: results from a randomized clinical trial. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2009;48:1143–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Johnson C, Handen B, Butter E, et al. Development of a parent training program for chidlren with pervasive developmental disorders. Behav Intervent 2007;22:301–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Reiersen AM, Constantino JN, Todd RD. Co-occurrence of motor problems and autistic symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:662–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A. Comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1999;40:57–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kaplan B, Crawford S, Cantell M, Kooistra L, Dewey D. Comorbidity, co-occurrence, continuum: what's in a name? Child Care Health Dev 2006;32:723–731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Taurines R, Schmitt J, Renner T, Conner AC, Warnke A, Romanos M. Developmental comorbidity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord 2010;2:267–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. The comorbidity of ADHD in the general population of Swedish school-age children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2001;42:487–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Leyfer OT, Folstein SE, Bacalman S, et al. Comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism: interview development and rates of disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2006;36:849–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Simonoff E, Pickles A, Charman T, Chandler S, Loucas T, Baird G. Psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders: prevalence, comorbidity, and associated factors in a population-derived sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:921–929.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bristol-Power MM, Spinella G. Research on screening and diagnosis in autism: a work in progress. J Autism Dev Disord 1999;29:435–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sonuga-Barke EJ, Auerbach J, Campbell SB, Daley D, Thompson M. Varieties of preschool hyperactivity: multiple pathways from risk to disorder. Dev Sci 2005;8:141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Todd RD, Huang H, Todorov AA, et al. Predictors of stability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subtypes from childhood to young adulthood. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;47:76–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Lahey BB, Pelham WE, Loney J, Lee SS, Willcutt E. Instability of the DSM-IV Subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:896–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lahey BB, Willcutt EG. Predictive validity of a continuous alternative to nominal subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for DSM-V. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2010;39:761–775.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ronald A, Simonoff E, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R. Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008;49:535–542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ronald A, Happe F, Plomin R. A twin study investigating the genetic and environmental aetiologies of parent, teacher and child ratings of autistic-like traits and their overlap. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;17:473–483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reiersen AM, Constantino JN, Volk HE, Todd RD. Autistic traits in a population-based ADHD twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2007;48:464–472.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Lecavalier L, Gadow KD, Devincent CJ, Houts CR, Edwards MC. Validity of DSM-IV syndromes in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Autism 2011;15:527–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Sinzig J, Walter D, Doepfner M. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: symptom or syndrome? J Attent Disord 2009;13:117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson DK, Maye MP, Lord C. Changes in maladaptive behaviors from midchildhood to young adulthood in autism spectrum disorder. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2011;116:381–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nyden A, Niklasson L, Stahlberg O, et al. Adults with autism spectrum disorders and ADHD neuropsychological aspects. Res Dev Disabil 2010;31:1659–1668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stahlberg O, Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Gillberg C. Bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and other psychotic disorders in adults with childhood onset AD/HD and/or autism spectrum disorders. J Neural Transm 2004;111:891–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Boyd BA, Odom SL, Humphreys BP, Sam AM. Infants and toddlers with autism spectrum disorder: Early identification and early intervention. J Early Interv 2010;32:75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pliszka SR. Patterns of psychiatric comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2000;9:525–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gadow KD, Guttmann-Steinmetz S, Rieffe C, Devincent CJ. Depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder and comparison samples. J Autism Dev Disord 2011. doi: 10.1007/s10803-011-1367-x.
  88. 88.
    Matson JL, Nebel-Schwalm MS. Comorbid psychopathology with autism spectrum disorder in children: an overview. Res Dev Disabil 2007;28:341–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Holtmann M, Bolte S, Poustka F. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in pervasive developmental disorders: association with autistic behavior domains and coexisting psychopathology. Psychopathology 2007;40:172–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guttmann-Steinmetz S, Gadow KD, DeVincent CJ, Crowell J. Anxiety symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or chronic multiple tic disorder and community controls. J Autism Dev Disord 2010;40:1006–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Santosh PJ, Mijovic A. Does pervasive developmental disorder protect children and adolescents against drug and alcohol use? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;15:183–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hofvander B, Delorme R, Chaste P, et al. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders. BMC Psychiatry. 2009;9:35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Skokauskas N, Gallagher L. Psychosis, affective disorders and anxiety in autistic spectrum disorder: prevalence and nosological considerations. Psychopathology 2010;43:8–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hoza B, Mrug S, Gerdes AC, et al. What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? J Consult Clin Psychol 2005;73:411–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mikami AY. The importance of friendship for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 2010;13:181–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Carter AS, Davis NO, Klin A, Volkmar FR. Social development in autism. In: Volkmar FR, Paul R, Klin A, Cohen D, eds. Handbook of autism and pervasive developmental disorders, Vol 1: Diagnosis, development, neurobiology, and behavior Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 2005:312–344.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Santosh PJ, Mijovic A. Social impairment in hyperkinetic disorder — relationship to psychopathology and environmental stressors. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2004;13:141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Uekermann J, Kraemer M, Abdel-Hamid M, et al. Social cognition in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010;34:734–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sinzig J, Morsch D, Lehmkuhl G. Do hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention have an impact on the ability of facial affect recognition in children with autism and ADHD? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008;17:63–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nijmeijer JS, Minderaa RB, Buitelaar JK, Mulligan A, Hartman CA, Hoekstra PJ. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning. Clin Psychol Rev 2008;28:692–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Storebo OJ, Skoog M, Damm D, Thomsen PH, Simonsen E, Gluud C. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;12:CD008223.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    DeRosier ME, Swick DC, Davis NO, McMillen JS, Matthews R. The efficacy of a social skills group intervention for improving social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2011;41:1033–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bellini S, Peters JK. Social skills training for youth with autism spectrum disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2008;17:857–873.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Greene RW, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Sienna M, Garcia-Jetton J. Adolescent outcome of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social disability: results from a 4-year longitudinal follow-up study. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65:758–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Frankel F, Myatt R, Cantwell DP, Feinberg DT. Parent-assisted transfer of children's social skills training: effects on children with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:1056–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Frankel F, Myatt R, Feinberg D. Parent-assisted friendship training for children with autism spectrum disorders: effects of psychotropic medication. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2007;37:337–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mikami AY, Lerner MD, Griggs MS, McGrath A, Calhoun CD. Parental influence on children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: II. Results of a pilot intervention training parents as friendship coaches for children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010;38:737–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Pennington BF, Ozonoff S. Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996;37:51–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ozonoff S, Jensen J. Brief report: specific executive function profiles in three neurodevelopmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 1999;29:171–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 1997;121:65–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J. Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:951–958.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Happe F, Booth R, Charlton R, Hughes C. Executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: examining profiles across domains and ages. Brain Cogn 2006;61:25–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bramham J, Ambery F, Young S, et al. Executive functioning differences between adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic spectrum disorder in initiation, planning and strategy formation. Autism 2009;13:245–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Corbett BA, Constantine LJ, Hendren R, Rocke D, Ozonoff S. Examining executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and typical development. Psychiatry Res 2009;166:210–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Yerys BE, Wallace GL, Sokoloff JL, Shook DA, James JD, Kenworthy L. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms moderate cognition and behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism Res 2009;2:322–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Sinzig J, Morsch D, Bruning N, Schmidt MH, Lehmkuhl G. Inhibition, flexibility, working memory and planning in autism spectrum disorders with and without comorbid ADHD-symptoms. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2008;2:4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Diamond A, Lee K. Interventions shown to aid executive function development in children 4 to 12 years old. Science 2011;333:959–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Rabiner DL, Murray DW, Skinner AT, Malone PS. A randomized trial of two promising computer-based interventions for students with attention difficulties. J Abnorm Child Psychol 2010;38:131–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chang YK, Liu S, Yu HH, Lee YH. Effect of acute exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2012;27:225–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Flook L, Smalley S, Kitil MJ, et al. Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. J Appl Sch Psychol 2010;26:70–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fisher N, Happe F. A training study of theory of mind and executive function in children with autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord 2005;35:757–771.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Soorya L, Halpern D. Psychosocial interventions for motor coordiantion, executive functions, and socialization deficits in ADHD and ASD. Prim Psychiatry 2009;16:48–54.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Toplak ME, Bucciarelli SM, Jain U, Tannock R. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychol 2009;15:53–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Sinzig J, Lehmkuhl G. What do we know about the serotonergic genetic heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity and autistic disorders? Psychopathology 2007;40:329–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 development. A 10 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Available at: Accessed February 28, 2012.
  126. 126.
    American Psychiatric Association. DSM-5 development. A 09 autism spectrum disorder. Available at: Accessed February 28, 2012.
  127. 127.
    Coghill D, Seth S. Do the diagnostic criteria for ADHD need to change? Comments on the preliminary proposals of the DSM-5 ADHD and Disruptive Behavior Disorders Committee. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011;20:75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sonuga-Barke EJ, Koerting J, Smith E, McCann DC, Thompson M. Early detection and intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Rev Neurother 2011;11:557–563.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations