Numerical Modelling of Energy Dissipative Steel Cushions

  • Ahmet Gullu
  • Eleni Smyrou
  • Arastoo Khajehdehi
  • Hasan Ozkaynak
  • I. Engin Bal
  • Ercan YukselEmail author
  • Faruk Karadogan


Energy dissipative steel cushions (EDSCs) are simple units that can be used to join structural members. They can absorb a substantial amount of seismic energy due to their geometric shapes and the ductile behavior of mild steel. Large deformation capability and stable hysteretic behavior were obtained in monotonic and cyclic tests of EDSCs in the framework of the SAFECLADDING project. Discrete numerical modeling strategies were applied to reproduce the experimental results. The first and second models comprise two-dimensional shell elements and one-dimensional flexural frame elements, respectively. The uncertain points in the preparation of the models included the mesh density, representation of the material properties, and interaction between contacting surfaces. A zero-length nonlinear link element was used in the third attempt in the numerical modeling. Parameters are recommended for the Ramberg–Osgood and bilinear models. The obtained results indicate that all of the numerical models can reproduce the response, and the stiffness, strength, and unloading and reloading curves were fitted accurately.


Steel cushion Numerical modeling Shell element Flexural frame element Zero-length nonlinear link element 



This research was conducted under the framework of the FP7 Project “SAFECLADDING: “Improved Fastening Systems of Cladding Wall Panels of Precast Buildings in Seismic Zones”, Research for SME Associations, Grant Agreement Number 314122, which was coordinated by Dr. Alessio Rinoldi from BIBM, Belgium. The financial support provided by the Commission of the European Communities through this Project is greatly appreciated. The experimental study was conducted at the Structural and Earthquake Engineering Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (STEELab). The support from laboratory staff and graduate students is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. ABAQUS, v. 6.10 (2011). Computer software, Simulia, Dassault Systemes, Providence, RI, USA.Google Scholar
  2. ABAQUS, v. 6.14 (2014). Computer software, Simulia, Dassault Systemes, Providence, RI, USA.Google Scholar
  3. ABAQUS Analysis User's Manual, Simulia, Dassault Systemes, Providence, RI, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Abebe, D. Y., Kim, J. W., Gwak, G., & Chol, J. H. (2018). Low-cycled hysteresis characteristics of circular hollow steel dampers subjected to inelastic behavior. International Journal of Steel Structures. Scholar
  5. ANSYS, V. 11.1. (2010). User manual. Canonsburg: Ansys Inc.Google Scholar
  6. Atasever, K., Çelik, O. C., & Yüksel, E. (2018). Development and cyclic behavior of U-shaped steel dampers with perforated and nonparallel arm configurations. International Journal of Steel Structures, 18(5), 1741–1753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baird, A., Palermo, A., & Pampanin, S. (2013). Controlling seismic response using passive energy dissipating cladding connections. In Proceedings of the New Zealand society for earthquake engineering conference, Christchurch.Google Scholar
  8. Baird, A., Smith, T., Palermo, & A., Pampanin, S. (2014). Experimental and numerical study of U-shape Flexural Plate (UFP) dissipaters. In Proceedings of the New Zealand society for earthquake engineering conference, Christchurch.Google Scholar
  9. Deng, K., Pan, P., Su, Y., & Xue, Y. (2015a). Shape optimization of U-shaped damper for improving its bi-directional performance under cyclic loading. Journal of Engineering Structures, 93, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Deng, K., Pan, P., Su, Y., & Xue, Y. (2015b). Development of a buckling restrained shear panel damper. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 106, 311–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deng, K., Pan, P., Sun, J., Liu, J., & Xue, Y. (2014). Shape optimization design of steel shear panel dampers. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 99, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Di Sarno, L., Elnashai, A. S. (2005) Innovative strategies for seismic retrofitting of steel and composite structures. Progress in Structural Engineering and Materials, 7(3), 115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dusi, A., Bettinali, F., Forni, M., Grotteria, M. L., Castellano, M.G., Infanti, S., Bergamo, G., & Bonacina, G. (2000). Implementation and validation of finite element models of steel hysteretic torsional energy dissipators. In Proceedings of the 12th world conference on earthquake engineering, Auckland.Google Scholar
  14. Elnashai, A. S., & Di Sarno, L. (2008). Fundamentals of earthquake engineering. Wiley.Google Scholar
  15. EN10002-1. (2001). Metallic materials—Tensile testing—Part 1: Method of test at ambient temperature. Brussels: European Committee for Standardization.Google Scholar
  16. FEMA-461. (2007). Interim testing protocols for determining the seismic performance characteristics of structural and nonstructural components. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency.Google Scholar
  17. Gray, M. G., Christopoulos, C., & Packer, J. A. (2014). Cast steel yielding brace system for concentrically braced frames: Concept development and experimental validations. ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering. Scholar
  18. Hedayat, A. A. (2015). Prediction of the force displacement capacity boundary of an unbuckled steel slit damper. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 114, 30–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jia, L. J., & Kuwamura, H. (2014). Prediction of cyclic behaviors of mild steel at large plastic strain using coupon test results. Journal of Structural Engineering. Scholar
  20. Kelly, J. M., Skinner, R. I., & Heine, A. J. (1972). Mechanisms of energy absorption in special devices for use in earthquake-resistant structures. Bulletin of the New Zealand National Society for Earthquake Engineering, 5(3), 63–88.Google Scholar
  21. Maleki, S., & Bagheri, S. (2010). Pipe damper, part I: Experimental and analytical study. Journal of Constructıon Steel Research, 66(8–9), 1088–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maleki, S., & Mahjoubi, S. (2013). Dual-pipe damper. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 85, 81–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Menegotto, M. & Pinto, P. E. (1973). Method of analysis for cyclically loaded RC plane frames including changes in geometry and non-elastic behavior of elements under combined normal force and bending. In Proceedings of the symposium on the resistance and ultimate deformability of structures acted on by well defined repeated loads, International association for bridge and structural engineering, (pp. 15–22).Google Scholar
  24. Özkaynak, H., Khajehdehi, A., Güllü, A., Azizisales, F., Yüksel, E., & Karadoğan, F. (2018). Uni-axial behavior of energy dissipative steel cushions. Steel and Composite Structures, 27(6), 661–674.Google Scholar
  25. Sahoo, D. R., & Pandikkadavath, M. S. (2016). Analytical investigation on cyclic response of buckling-restrained braces with short yielding core segments. International Journal of Steel Structures, 16(4), 1273–1285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sahoo, D. R., Sidhu, B. S., & Kumar, A. (2015). Behavior of unstiffened steel plate shear wall with simple beam-to-column connections and flexible boundary elements. International Journal of Steel Structures, 15(1), 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. SeismoStruct. (2012/2016). Computer software for static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures, Seismosoft Ltd.
  28. Smyrou, E., Güllü, A., Yüksel, E., Özkaynak, H., & Karadoğan, H. F. (2014). Modeling of an energy dissipater for precast RC cladding systems. In Proceedings of the 2nd European conference on earthquake engineering and seismology, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  29. Yüksel, E., Karadoğan, F., Özkaynak, H., Khajehdehi, A., Güllü, A., Smyrou, E., et al. (2018). Behavior of steel cushions subjected to combined actions. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 16(2), 707–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Steel Construction 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Science and TechnologyIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.School of Architecture and Built EnvironmentHanze University of Applied ScienceGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Civil EngineeringBeykent UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  4. 4.Faculty of Civil EngineeringIstanbul Technical UniversityMaslak, IstanbulTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Civil EngineeringIsik UniversitySile, IstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations