International Journal of Steel Structures

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 891–909 | Cite as

A Novel Approach for Bolted T-Stub Connections

  • Merve Sağıroğlu
  • Mahyar Maali
  • Mahmut Kılıç
  • Abdulkadir Cüneyt AydınEmail author


This paper reports an investigation into new connection types and their behaviors determined using full-scale experiments. T-shaped connections were created using the IPE standard profile. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of T connections based on the IPE standard profile, height of beam to height of T-stub joint (H) of T-stub joints, and lengths (X) of T-stub joints on the behavior of steel connections, in order to provide the necessary data for improving Eurocode 3 and enable efficient use of residue IPE standard profiles and back to the consumption cycle. While the moment resistance values increased with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax in model groups with X of 126 mm, and the energy dissipation increased with an increase in H from Hmin to Hmax and also with an increase in the lengths (X) of T-stub joints from 54 to 126 mm.


Experiment Moment–rotation curves IPE standard profile T-shaped connection Eurocode 3 

List of symbols


Ultimate or tensile stress


Yield stress


Strain hardening modulus

ρy = fy/fu

Yield ratio


Strain at the strain hardening point


Uniform strain


Strain at rupture load


Cartesian axis; distance


Young’s modulus


Moment of inertia


Joint flexural plastic (design) resistance


Maximum bending moment


Lower resistance bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve


Upper resistance bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve


Bending moment at fracture of the joint


Initial rotational stiffness of a joint


Post-yield rotational stiffness of a joint


Rotation capacity of a connection


Rotation of the connection at maximum load


Connection rotation analytical value at which the moment resistance first reaches Mj.Rd

Өmin K−R

Rotation between the lower bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve and the rotation capacity

Өsup K−R

Rotation between the upper bound of the knee-range of the joint moment–rotation curve and the rotation capacity


Joint ductility index evaluated for rotation at maximum load


Joint ductility index



The authors wish to thank the BAP Project (2015/125) of Ataturk University, Turkey, for Project funding, the financial support given by the Tübitak (2215) for Mahyar Maali, and the Gençler Metal steel company for making the test specimens available.


  1. Aydın, A. C., Kılıç, M., Maali, M., & Sağıroğlu, M. (2015a). Experimental assessment of the semi-rigid connections behavior with angles and stiffeners. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 114, 338–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aydın, A. C., Maali, M., Kılıç, M., & Sağıroğlu, M. (2015b). Experimental investigation of sinus beams with end-plate connection. Journal of Thin Walled structures, 97, 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babu, S. S., & Sreekumar, S. (2012). A study on the ductility of bolted beam-column connections. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER), 2(5), 3517–3521.Google Scholar
  4. Coelho, A. M. G., Bijlaard, F. S. K., Gresnigt, N., & da Silva, L. S. (2004). Experimental assessment of the behaviour of bolted T-stub connections made up of welded Plates. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 60, 269–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Limaa, L. R. O., de Andradea, S. A. L., da Vellascob, P. C. G. S., & da Silvac, L. S. (2002). Experimental and mechanical model for predicting the behaviour of minor axis beam-to-column semi-rigidjoints. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 44, 1047–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Drosopoulos, G. A., Stavroulakis, G. E., & Abdalla, K. M. (2012). 3D finite element analysis of end-plate joints. Steel and Composite Structures, 12, 93–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. European Committee for Standardization (CEN). (2005). Design of steel structures part 1.8: Design of joints. Stage 49 draft, Brussels.Google Scholar
  8. Gil, B., Cabrero, J. M., Goñi, R., & Bayo, E. (2003). An assessment of the rotation capacity required by structural hollow sections for plastic analysis. In M. A. Jaurrieta, A. Alonso, & J. A. Chica (Eds.), Tubular structures X (pp. 277–292). Lisse: A.A. Balkema Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Herrera, R., Bravo, M., Gómez, G., & Aedo, G. (2013). Performance of built-up T-stubs for double T moment connections. Journal of Constrructional Steel Ressearch, 88, 289–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Katula, L., & Dunai, L. (2015). Experimental study on standard and innovative bolted end-plate beam-to-beam joints under bending. Steel and Composite Structures, 18(6), 1423–1450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Liu, Y., Málaga-Chuquitaype, C., & Elghazouli, Y. (2014). Behaviour of open beam-to-tubular column angle connections under combined loading conditions. Steel and Composite Structures, 16(2), 157–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maali, M., Aydın, A. C., & Sağıroğlu, M. (2015). Investigation of innovative steel runway beam in industrial building. Sadhana, 40(7), 2239–2251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Maali, M., Kılıc, M., Sagiroglu, M., & Aydin, A. C. (2016). Experimental model for predicting the semi-rigid connections behavior with angles and stiffeners. Advances in Structural Engineering, 20(6), 884–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pitrakkos, T., & Tizani, W. (2015). A component method model for blind-bolts with headed anchors in tension. Steel and Composite Structures, 18(5), 1305–1330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Sagiroglu, M., & Aydin, A. C. (2015). Design and analysis of non-linear space frames with semi-rigid connections. Steel and Composite Structures, 18(6), 1405–1421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. SB EN ISO 898-1:1999. (2009). Mechanical properties of fasteners made of carbon steel and alloy steel. Bolts, screws and stud. Published: October 1999 Replaced By: SB EN ISO 898-1:2009, Revised, Withdrawn.Google Scholar
  17. Schleich, J. B., Chantrain, P., Chabrolin, B., Galéa, Y., Bureau, A., & Anza, J. (1998). Promotion of plastic design for steel and composite cross sections: New required conditions in Eurocodes 3 and 4, practical tools for designers. European commission; 1998.Google Scholar
  18. Swanson, J. A., Leon, R. T., & Kokan, D. S. (2002). Advanced finite element modeling of bolted T-stub connection components. Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 58(5), 1015–1031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. UNE-EN 10002-1. (2002). Materiales met´alicos. Ensayos de tracci´on. Parte 1: Método de ensayo a temperatura ambiente. AENOR, 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Steel Construction 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and ArchitectureErzurum Technical UniversityErzurumTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAtaturk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations