Advertisement

Ambio

pp 1–13 | Cite as

Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in Danish restored wetlands

  • Joachim AudetEmail author
  • Dominik Zak
  • Jørgen Bidstrup
  • Carl Christian Hoffmann
Research Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Wetland restoration is considered an effective mitigation method for decreasing nitrogen (N) losses from agricultural land. However, when former cropland becomes rewetted, there is a risk that phosphorus (P) accumulated in soils will be released downstream. Here, we evaluate N and P retention in eight restored wetlands in Denmark monitored for 1 year using a mass balance approach. The wetlands represented different types, for instance, lakes and wet meadows, and ages (3–13 years). We also show the results from a long-term monitoring station established in 1973, located downstream a lake that was re-established in 2006. All restored wetlands removed total N (42–305 kg N ha−1 year−1), while some wetlands acted as source of total P and others as a sink (− 2.8 to 10 kg P ha−1 year−1). Our study confirms that restored wetlands are effective at removing N, whereas P can be released for several years after restoration.

Keywords

Eutrophication Hydraulic residence time Nitrogen Phosphorus Wetland restoration 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank Ane Kjeldgaard for her help with GIS, Anne Mette Poulsen for improving the English language and Niels Bering Ovesen and Dorte Nedergaard for quality checking the discharge and nutrient data. We also thank the staff from the Danish Nature Agency and municipalities involved in the monitoring of the restored wetlands. The authors are grateful for the comments received on a previous version of this manuscript by two anonymous reviewers and the editor. This work received funding from the Danish ministry of environment and food.

Supplementary material

13280_2019_1181_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 2451 kb)

References

  1. Aldous, A.R., C.B. Craft, C.J. Stevens, M.J. Barry, and L.B. Bach. 2007. Soil phosphorus release from a restoration wetland, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Wetlands 27: 1025–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audet, J., L. Elsgaard, C. Kjaergaard, S.E. Larsen, and C.C. Hoffmann. 2013. Greenhouse gas emissions from a Danish riparian wetland before and after restoration. Ecological Engineering 57: 170–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Audet, J., L. Martinsen, B. Hasler, H. de Jonge, E. Karydi, N.B. Ovesen, and B. Kronvang. 2014. Comparison of sampling methodologies for nutrient monitoring in streams: Uncertainties, costs and implications for mitigation. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 18: 4721–4731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernhardt, E.S., M.A. Palmer, J.D. Allan, G. Alexander, K. Barnas, S. Brooks, J. Carr, S. Clayton, et al. 2005. Ecology. Synthesizing U.S. river restoration efforts. Science 308: 636–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blicher-Mathiesen, G., A. Rasmussen, J. Rolighed, H. E. Andersen, M. V. Carstensen, P. G. Jensen, J. Wienke, B. Hansen et al. 2018. Landovervågningsoplande 2016. Aarhus Universitet, DCE – Nationalt Center for Miljø og Energi.Google Scholar
  6. Bodirsky, B.L., A. Popp, H. Lotze-Campen, J.P. Dietrich, S. Rolinski, I. Weindl, C. Schmitz, C. Muller, et al. 2014. Reactive nitrogen requirements to feed the world in 2050 and potential to mitigate nitrogen pollution. Nature Communications 5: 3858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cassidy, R., and P. Jordan. 2011. Limitations of instantaneous water quality sampling in surface-water catchments: Comparison with near-continuous phosphorus time-series data. Journal of Hydrology 405: 182–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciais, P., C. Sabine, G. Bala, L. Bopp, V. Brovkin, J. Canadell, A. Chhabra, R. DeFries, et al. 2014. Carbon and other biogeochemical cycles. pp. 465–570 Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Comín, F.A., J.A. Romero, V. Astorga, and C. García. 1997. Nitrogen removal and cycling in restored wetlands used as filters of nutrients for agricultural runoff. Water Science and Technology 35: 255–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Constantin, J., B. Mary, F. Laurent, G. Aubrion, A. Fontaine, P. Kerveillant, and N. Beaudoin. 2010. Effects of catch crops, no till and reduced nitrogen fertilization on nitrogen leaching and balance in three long-term experiments. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 135: 268–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davidsson, T.E., and M. Ståhl. 2000. The influence of organic carbon on nitrogen transformations in five wetland soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64: 1129–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DS/EN ISO 6878. 2004. Water quality - Determination of phosphorus - Ammonium molybdate spectrometric method.Google Scholar
  13. DS/EN ISO 11905. 2004. Water quality—Determination of nitrogen—Part 1: Method using oxidative digestion with peroxydisulfate.Google Scholar
  14. European Commission. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Community, L327/1 (2000).Google Scholar
  15. Fisher, J., and M.C. Acreman. 2004. Wetland nutrient removal: a review of the evidence. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8: 673–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fowler, D., M. Coyle, U. Skiba, M.A. Sutton, J.N. Cape, S. Reis, L.J. Sheppard, A. Jenkins, et al. 2013. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 368: 165.Google Scholar
  17. Galloway, J.N., A.R. Townsend, J.W. Erisman, M. Bekunda, Z. Cai, J.R. Freney, L.A. Martinelli, S.P. Seitzinger, et al. 2008. Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320: 889–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grizzetti, B., F. Bouraoui, and A. Aloe. 2012. Changes of nitrogen and phosphorus loads to European seas. Global Change Biology 18: 769–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hernandez, M.E., and W.J. Mitsch. 2007. Denitrification potential and organic matter as affected by vegetation community, wetland age, and plant introduction in created wetlands. Journal of Environmental Quality 6: 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, A.R. 1996. Nitrate removal in stream riparian zones. Journal of Environmental Quality 25: 743–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffmann, C.C., and A. Baattrup-Pedersen. 2007. Re-establishing freshwater wetlands in Denmark. Ecological Engineering 30: 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hoffmann, C. C., A. Baattrup-Pedersen, E. Jeppesen, S. Amsinck, and P. Clausen. 2006. Overvågning af Vandmiljøplan II-Vådområder 2005. Danmarks Miljøundersøgelser.Google Scholar
  23. Hoffmann, C.C., L. Heiberg, J. Audet, B. Schønfeldt, A. Fuglsang, B. Kronvang, N.B. Ovesen, C. Kjaergaard, et al. 2012. Low phosphorus release but high nitrogen removal in two restored riparian wetlands inundated with agricultural drainage water. Ecological Engineering 46: 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoffmann, C.C., C. Kjaergaard, J. Uusi-Kamppa, H.C.B. Hansen, and B. Kronvang. 2009. Phosphorus retention in riparian buffers: Review of their efficiency. Journal of Environmental Quality 38: 1941–1955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hoffmann, C.C., B. Kronvang, and J. Audet. 2011. Evaluation of nutrient retention in four restored Danish riparian wetlands. Hydrobiologia 674: 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. IPCC. 2013. Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Jansson, M., A. Rune, B. Hans, and L. Leonardson. 1994. Wetlands and lakes as nitrogen traps. Ambio 23: 320–325.Google Scholar
  28. Jensen, H.S., P. Kristensen, E. Jeppesen, and A. Skytthe. 1992. Iron-phosphorus ratio in surface sediment as an indicator of phosphate release from aerobic sediments in shallow lakes. Hydrobiologia 235: 731–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jordan, T.E., D.F. Whigham, K.H. Hofmockel, and M.A. Pittek. 2003. Nutrient and sediment removal by a restored wetland receiving agricultural runoff. Journal of Environmental Quality 32: 1534–1547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kronvang, B., and A.J. Bruhn. 1996. Choice of sampling strategy and estimation method for calculating nitrogen and phosphorus transport in small lowland streams. Hydrological Processes 10: 1483–1501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kronvang, B., E. Jeppesen, D.J. Conley, M. Søndergaard, S.E. Larsen, N.B. Ovesen, and J. Carstensen. 2005. Nutrient pressures and ecological responses to nutrient loading reductions in Danish streams, lakes and coastal waters. Journal of Hydrology 304: 274–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Land, M., W. Granéli, A. Grimvall, C.C. Hoffmann, W.J. Mitsch, and K.S. Tonderski. 2016. How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 5: 9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lu, C., and H. Tian. 2017. Global nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century: shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalance. Earth System Science Data 9: 181–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Method 4500-NH3 Nitrogen (Ammonia). 2017. Standard Methods For the Examination of Water and Wastewater.  https://doi.org/10.2105/smww.2882.087.
  35. Method 4500-NO3 Nitrogen (Nitrate). 2017. Standard Methods For the Examination of Water and Wastewater.  https://doi.org/10.2105/smww.2882.089.
  36. Method 4500-P Phosphorus. 2017. Standard Methods For the Examination of Water and Wastewater.  https://doi.org/10.2105/smww.2882.093.
  37. Mitsch, W.J., and J.G. Gosselink. 1986. Wetlands. New York: Von Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  38. Mitsch, W.J., and S.E. Jørgensen. 2004. Ecological engineering and ecosystem restoration. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Moreno-Mateos, D., M.E. Power, F.A. Comin, and R. Yockteng. 2012. Structural and functional loss in restored wetland ecosystems. PLoS Biology 10: e1001247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. R Development Core Team. 2018. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.Google Scholar
  41. Reddy, K.R., and R.D. DeLaune. 2008. Biogeochemistry of wetlands: Science and applications. Boca Raton: CRC Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roberts, W.M., M.I. Stutter, and P.M. Haygarth. 2012. Phosphorus retention and remobilization in vegetated buffer strips: A review. Journal of Environmental Quality 41: 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rowe, H., P.J.A. Withers, P. Baas, N.I. Chan, D. Doody, J. Holiman, B. Jacobs, H. Li, et al. 2016. Integrating legacy soil phosphorus into sustainable nutrient management strategies for future food, bioenergy and water security. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 104: 393–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Smith, V.H., G.D. Tilman, and J.C. Nekola. 1999. Eutrophication: Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 100: 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Strand, J.A., and S.E.B. Weisner. 2013. Effects of wetland construction on nitrogen transport and species richness in the agricultural landscape—Experiences from Sweden. Ecological Engineering 56: 14–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Thodsen, H. 2007. The influence of climate change on stream flow in Danish rivers. Journal of Hydrology 333: 226–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tiedje, J.M. 1982. Denitrification. In Methods of soil analysis. Part 2, ed. A.L. Page, 1011–1024. Madison: American Society of Agronomy.Google Scholar
  48. van Geer, F.C., B. Kronvang, and H.P. Broers. 2016. High-resolution monitoring of nutrients in groundwater and surface waters: Process understanding, quantification of loads and concentrations, and management applications. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 20: 3619–3629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Meter, K.J., P. Van Cappellen, and N.B. Basu. 2018. Legacy nitrogen may prevent achievement of water quality goals in the Gulf of Mexico. Science 360: 427–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Verhoeven, J.T.A. 2014. Wetlands in Europe: Perspectives for restoration of a lost paradise. Ecological Engineering 66: 6–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Verhoeven, J.T.A., B. Arheimer, C.Q. Yin, and M.M. Hefting. 2006. Regional and global concerns over wetlands and water quality. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21: 96–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vymazal, J. 2017. The use of constructed wetlands for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage: A review. ScientiaAgriculturae Bohemica 48: 82–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zak, D., and J. Gelbrecht. 2007. The mobilisation of phosphorus, organic carbon and ammonium in the initial stage of fen rewetting (a case study from NE Germany). Biogeochemistry 85: 141–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zak, D., J. Gelbrecht, C. Wagner, and C.E.W. Steinberg. 2008. Evaluation of phosphorus mobilization potential in rewetted fens by an improved sequential chemical extraction procedure. European Journal of Soil Science 59: 1191–1201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zak, D., J. Gelbrecht, S. Zerbe, T. Shatwell, M. Barth, A. Cabezas, and P. Steffenhagen. 2014. How helophytes influence the phosphorus cycle in degraded inundated peat soils—Implications for fen restoration. Ecological Engineering 66: 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zak, D., C. Wagner, B. Payer, J. Augustin, and J. Gelbrecht. 2010. Phosphorus mobilization in rewetted fens: The effect of altered peat properties and implications for their restoration. Ecological Applications 20: 1336–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BioscienceAarhus UniversitySilkeborgDenmark
  2. 2.Naturstyrelsen-HimmerlandSkørpingDenmark

Personalised recommendations