, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 153–159 | Cite as

Reconciling certification and intact forest landscape conservation

  • Fritz KleinschrothEmail author
  • Claude Garcia
  • Jaboury Ghazoul


In 2014, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) added a new criterion to its principles that requires protection of intact forest landscapes (IFLs). An IFL is an extensive area of forest that lacks roads and other signs of human activity as detected through remote sensing. In the Congo basin, our analysis of road networks in formally approved concessionary logging areas revealed greater loss of IFL in certified than in noncertified concessions. In areas of informal (i.e., nonregulated) extraction, road networks are known to be less detectable by remote sensing. Under the current definition of IFL, companies certified under FSC standards are likely to be penalized relative to the noncertified as well as the informal logging sector on account of their planned road networks, despite an otherwise better standard of forest management. This could ultimately undermine certification and its wider adoption, with implications for the future of sustainable forest management.


Congo Basin Frontier forests FSC Land sharing versus land sparing Landscape approach Reduced impact logging 



Fritz Kleinschroth is funded by the DAFNE project of the European Union H2020 programme (Grant Number 690268). Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury, Alain Karsenty, and John R. Healey provided helpful discussion. Diana Franco Gil kindly helped with Fig. 1. The authors thank Peter Ellis and three anonymous reviewers for their useful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ecosystem Management, Department of Environmental Systems ScienceETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Terrestrial EcosystemsETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  3. 3.CIRAD, UPR Forêts et SociétésZurichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Prince Bernhard Chair of International Nature Conservation, Ecology and Biodiversity, Department of BiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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