A review of regulations and guidelines related to winter manure application
- 377 Downloads
Winter manure application elevates nutrient losses and impairment of water quality as compared to manure applications in other seasons. In conjunction with reviewing global distribution of animal densities, we reviewed worldwide mandatory regulations and voluntary guidelines on efforts to reduce off-site nutrient losses associated with winter manure applications. Most of the developed countries implement regulations or guidelines to restrict winter manure application, which range from a regulative ban to guidelines based upon weather and field management conditions. In contrast, developing countries lack such official directives, despite an increasing animal production industry and concern over water quality. An analysis of five case studies reveals that directives are derived from a common rationale to reduce off-site manure nutrient losses, but they are also affected by local socio-economic and biophysical considerations. Successful programs combine site-specific management strategies along with expansion of manure storage to offer farmers greater flexibility in winter manure management.
KeywordsAnimal production Eutrophication Manure management regulations Nutrient management Winter manure application
The authors thank Nina Bonnelycke (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and Don Meals (Tetra Tech Inc.) for sharing their draft summary of state program requirements for winter application of manure in the U.S., and Chris Ullmann (Alberta Department of Agriculture and Forestry) for sharing the unpublished report of directives on winter application of manure in Canada. The authors also thank Amy Shober (University of Delaware), Thomas Basden (West Virginia University), Richard Meinert (University of Connecticut), Karl Czymmek (Cornell University), Joshua McGrath (University of Kentucky), and Daniel Geisseler (University of California, Davis) for providing information related to winter manure directives in their states. Gary Shenk (U.S. Geological Survey) kindly provided the original data for mapping the production of manure nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Anthony Buda (U.S. Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service) provided helpful insights on issues related to weather. This publication was developed under Assistance Agreement No. RD 83556801-0 awarded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It has not been formally reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by any of the authors’ organization or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. All entities involved are equal opportunity providers and employers.
- Beckwith, C.P., J. Cooper, K.A. Smith, and M.A. Shepherd. 1998. Nitrate leaching loss following application of organic manures to sandy soils in arable cropping. I. Effects of application time, manure type, overwinter crop cover and nitrification inhibition. Soil Use and Management 14: 123–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Burns, M.J. 2015. Canterbury region dairy report 2014-2015 season. Christchurch: Environment Canterbury.Google Scholar
- Chesapeake Bay Program. 2010. Nutrients. http://www.chesapeakebay.net/issues/issue/nutrients. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.
- China Statistics Press. 2010. China statistical yearbook. Beijing: China Statistics Press. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Dairy Australia. 2015. Dairy Self-Assessment Tool. Southbank: Dairy Australia.Google Scholar
- DairyNZ. 2015. A guide to using the Dairy Effluent Storage Calculator (DESC). Hamilton: Dairy New Zealand.Google Scholar
- Delaware Department of Agriculture. 2003. Nutrient management regulations. http://dda.delaware.gov/nutrients/nm_reg.shtml Accessed 1 May 2015.
- European Commission. 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European parliament and of the council of 23 October 2000: Establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:02000L0060-20141120&from=EN Accessed 25 Jan 2017.
- European Economic Community. 1991. Protection of water against pollution by nitrates from agriculture. EEC/91/976, Official Journal No L375, 31.12.1991. Brussels, Belgium.Google Scholar
- Fleming, R., and H. Fraser. 2000. Impacts of winter spreading of manure on water quality: Literature review. Ridgetown: Ridgetown College, University of Guelph.Google Scholar
- Glozier, N.E., J.A. Elliott, B. Holliday, J. Yarotski, and B. Harker. 2006. Water quality characteristics and trends in a small agricultural watershed: South Tobacco Creek, Manitoba, 1992-2001. Manitoba: Environment Canada.Google Scholar
- Green, D.J. 1996. Surface water quality impacts following winter applications of hog manure in the Interlake region, Manitoba, Canada 1996. Water Quality Management Report No. 96-14. Manitoba Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.Google Scholar
- Green, D.J., and W.N. Turner. 2002. South Tobacco Creek manured watershed runoff study, 1998–2001. Manitoba Conservation and Deerwood Soil and Water Management Association. Manitoba Conservation Report No. 2002-02. Manitoba, Canada.Google Scholar
- Hall, M.H. 2015. Soil fertility management. In The Agronomy Guide, 2015–2016, ed. W. Curran, and D.D. Lingenfelter, 93–116. University Park, PA: Publ. Distribution Center, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
- Jenkins, B.R. 2013. Progress of the Canterbury Water Management Strategy and some emerging issues, New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society Conference 2013 (NZARES), 29–30 Aug 2013. University of Canterbury. Waterways Centre for Freshwater Management, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand.Google Scholar
- Kellogg, R.L., C.H. Lander, D.C. Moffitt, and N. Gollehon. 2000. Manure nutrients relative to the capacity of cropland and pastureland to assimilate nutrients: Spatial and temporal trends for the United States. NRCS and ERS GSA Pubi. No. npsOO-0579. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Kronsell, A. 1997. Environmental policy in Sweden: setting a good example. In European Environmental Policy: The Pioneers, ed. M.S. Andersen, and D. Liefferink. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
- Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. 2006. Reducing Nutrient loading to Lake Winnipeg and its watershed: Our collective responsibility and commitment to action. Report to the Minister of Water Stewardship, December 2006. Manitoba, Canada.Google Scholar
- Malgeryd, J., and S. Olofsson. 2016. Measures to reduce phosphorus losses from agricultural land in Sweden. Book of abstracts for 8th International Phosphorus workshop, Rostock, Germany 12–16 Sept 2016.Google Scholar
- Manitoba Environment Act. 1998. Livestock manure and mortalities management regulation. https://web2.gov.mb.ca/laws/regs/current/_pdf-regs.php?reg=42/98 Accessed 9 Dec 2016.
- Manitoba Sustainable Development. 2017. Restriction on winter application of nutrients. Province of Manitoba. http://www.gov.mb.ca/sd/waterstewardship/wqmz/winter_app_nutrients.html Accessed 9 Jan 2017.
- Maryland Department of Agriculture. 2012. Nutrient application requirements. Maryland Nutrient Management Manual Section 1. Nutrient Recommendations. http://mda.maryland.gov/resource_conservation/Documents/nm_manual/1-D1-1-1D1-6.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2016.
- Maule, C., and J. Elliott. 2006. Effect of hog manure injection upon soil productivity and water quality. Part II. Elstow site 2000–2005. ADF Project 98000094. Saskatoon, Canada.Google Scholar
- McDowell, R.W., R.M. Dils, A.L. Collins, K.A. Flahive, A.N. Sharpley, and J. Quinn. 2016. A review of the policies and implementation of practices to decrease water quality impairment by phosphorus in New Zealand, the UK, and the US. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 104: 289–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Midgley, A.R., and D.E. Dunklee. 1945. Fertility runoff losses from manure spread during the winter. University of Vermont, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 523: 1–19.Google Scholar
- Ministry for Primary Industries. 2013. The Dairying and Clean Streams Accord: Snapshot of Progress 2011/2012. Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries.Google Scholar
- Ministry for the Environment. 2014. National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management 2014. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment.Google Scholar
- New York Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2013. Conservation Practice Standard: Nutrient Management (Ac.) Code 590. http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs144p2_027006.pdf Accessed 1 May 2015.
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2016. Storm events database. NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/stormevents/choosedates.jsp?statefips=24%2CMARYLAND Accessed 21 Dec 2016.
- Oskarsen, H., T.K. Haraldsen, A.H. Aastveit, and K. Myhr. 1996. The Kvithamar field lysimeter II. Pipe drainage, surface runoff and nutrient leaching. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10: 211–228. (in Norwegian).Google Scholar
- Pennsylvania Code. 2005. Act 38 Nutrient Management Regulations. http://extension.psu.edu/plants/nutrient-management/act-38/act-38-nutrient-management-regulations Accessed 5 Jan 2015.
- Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. 2011. Land application of manure: A supplementary to manure management for environmental protection. Manure Management Plan Guidance 361-0300-002. http://www.elibrary.dep.state.pa.us/dsweb/Get/Document-86014/361-0300-002%20combined.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2015.
- Robinson, T.P., G.R.W. Wint, G. Conchedda, T.P. Boeckel, V. Ercoli, E. Palamara, G. Cinardi, L. D’Aietti, et al. 2014. Mapping the global distribution of livestock. PLoS ONE 9:e96084. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096084 (GIS data available online: http://geo-wiki.org. Accessed 27 Dec 2017).
- Sanson, R., and W. Baxter. 2011. Stock exclusion survey. Wellington: Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.Google Scholar
- State Council of the People’s Republic of China Code 634. 2013. Regulations on Prevention and Control of Pollution by Scaled Livestock and Poultry Breeding Industry. http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-11/26/content_2534836.htm (in Chinese). Accessed 1 May 2016.
- Srinivasan, M.S., R.B. Bryant, M.P. Callahan, and J.L. Weld. 2006. Manure management and nutrient loss under winter conditions: A literature review. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 61: 200–209.Google Scholar
- Ullmann, C. 2016. Jurisdictional review of spreading on frozen or snow-covered land. Alberta: Alberta Department of Agriculture and Forestry.Google Scholar
- U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2003. Code 590 Nutrient management practice standard. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Natural Resources Conservation Service.Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2010. Chesapeake Bay Phase 5.3 Community Watershed Model. EPA 903S10002 - CBP/TRS-303-10. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Annapolis, Maryland. December 2010.Google Scholar
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. State Winter Application Restrictions (White Paper Draft Appendix). Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Valpasvuo-Jaatinen, P., S. Rekolainen, and H. Latostenmaa. 1997. Finnish agriculture and its sustainability: Environmental impacts. Ambio 26: 448–455.Google Scholar
- Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2014. Nutrient management training and certification regulations 4VAC50-85 http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/documents/nmtraincertregs.pdf Accessed 1 May 2015.
- West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection. 1998. Standards for Use, Disposal and Processing of Sewage Sludge http://apps.sos.wv.gov/adlaw/csr/readfile.aspx?DocId=21967&Format=PDF Accessed 1 May 2015.
- Young, R.A., and R.F. Holt. 1977. Winter applied manure: Effects of annual runoff, erosion, and nutrient movement. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 32: 219–222.Google Scholar