, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 649–660 | Cite as

Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

  • Margit Eero
  • Helén C. Andersson
  • Elin Almroth-Rosell
  • Brian R. MacKenzie


Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period of the nutrient increase, combined with nutrient concentrations from a 3-dimensional coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model. The results suggest that nutrient enrichment enhanced the biomass level of forage fish by up to 50 % in some years and areas due to increased body weight of fish. However, the trends in fish biomasses were generally decoupled from changes in nutrient concentrations.


Nutrients Fish production Recruitment Body weight 



This work was supported by the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under Grant Agreement No. 266445 for the project Vectors of Change in Oceans and Seas Marine Life, Impact on Economic Sectors (VECTORS) and resulted from the BONUS BIO-C3 project supported by BONUS (Art 185), funded jointly by the EU and Innovation Fund Denmark and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas) (219-2013-2041). Support was also received by the Norden Top-level Research Initiative sub-programme “Effect Studies and Adaptation to Climate Change” through the Nordic Centre for Research on Marine Ecosystems and Resources under Climate Change (NorMER).

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (PDF 314 kb)


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margit Eero
    • 1
  • Helén C. Andersson
    • 2
  • Elin Almroth-Rosell
    • 2
  • Brian R. MacKenzie
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute for Aquatic ResourcesTechnical University of DenmarkCharlottenlundDenmark
  2. 2.Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological InstituteNorrköpingSweden

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