Advertisement

Ambio

, Volume 45, Issue 5, pp 551–566 | Cite as

Sheep grazing in the North Atlantic region: A long-term perspective on environmental sustainability

  • Louise C. Ross
  • Gunnar Austrheim
  • Leif-Jarle Asheim
  • Gunnar Bjarnason
  • Jon Feilberg
  • Anna Maria Fosaa
  • Alison J. Hester
  • Øystein Holand
  • Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir
  • Lis E. Mortensen
  • Atle Mysterud
  • Erla Olsen
  • Anders Skonhoft
  • James D. M. Speed
  • Geir Steinheim
  • Des B. A. Thompson
  • Anna Gudrún Thórhallsdóttir
Review

Abstract

Sheep grazing is an important part of agriculture in the North Atlantic region, defined here as the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway and Scotland. This process has played a key role in shaping the landscape and biodiversity of the region, sometimes with major environmental consequences, and has also been instrumental in the development of its rural economy and culture. In this review, we present results of the first interdisciplinary study taking a long-term perspective on sheep management, resource economy and the ecological impacts of sheep grazing, showing that sustainability boundaries are most likely to be exceeded in fragile environments where financial support is linked to the number of sheep produced. The sustainability of sheep grazing can be enhanced by a management regime that promotes grazing densities appropriate to the site and supported by area-based subsidy systems, thus minimizing environmental degradation, encouraging biodiversity and preserving the integrity of ecosystem processes.

Keywords

Atlantic region Management Nordic agriculture Rural economy Sheep grazing Sustainability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the Research Council of Norway for funding through the Environment 2015 program (Project 212897/E40), the Norwegian Environment Agency and North Atlantic Co-operation (NORA). We thank John Milne† for useful discussions on sheep grazing in Scotland, Paul Haworth, Alan Fielding and BorgÞór Magnusson for discussion and critical comments, and two anonymous referees for comments on earlier drafts of this paper.

References

  1. Albon, S.D., M.J. Brewer, S. O’Brien, A.J. Nolan, and D. Cope. 2007. Quantifying the grazing impacts associated with different herbivores on rangelands. Journal of Applied Ecology 44: 1176–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso, I., S.E. Hartley, and M. Thurlow. 2001. Competition between heather and grasses on Scottish moorlands: Interacting effects of nutrient enrichment and grazing regime. Journal of Vegetation Science 12: 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnalds, O. 2015. Collapse, erosion, condition, and restoration. In: The soils of Iceland by Arnalds O, pp. 153–180. World Soil Series, Springer. DOI  10.1007/978-94-017-9621-7.
  4. Arnalds, O., and B.H. Barkarson. 2003. Soil erosion and land use policy in Iceland in relation to sheep grazing and government subsidies. Environmental Science & Policy 6: 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnoldussen, A.H., M. Forbord, A. Grønlund, M.E. Hillestad, K. Mittenzwei, I. Pettersen, and T. Tufte. 2014. Økt matproduksjon på norske arealer. Agri Analyse 6: 1–95 (In Norwegian).Google Scholar
  6. Austrheim, G., L.-J. Asheim, G. Bjarnason, J. Feilberg, A.M. Fosaa, Ø. Holand, K. Høegh, I.S. Jónsdóttir, B. Magnuússon, L.E. Mortensen, A. Mysterud, E. Olsen, A. Skonhoft, G. Steinheim, and A.G. Þórhallsdóttir. 2008a. Sheep grazing in the North-Atlantic region—A long term perspective on management, resource economy and ecology. Museum of Natural History and Archaeology Report Zoological Series 3: 1–82.Google Scholar
  7. Austrheim, G., A. Mysterud, K. Hassel, M. Evju, and R.H. Økland. 2007. Interactions between sheep, rodents, graminoids and bryophytes in an oceanic alpine ecosystem of low productivity. Ecoscience 14: 178–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Austrheim, G., A. Mysterud, B. Pedersen, R. Halvorsen, K. Hassel, and M. Evju. 2008b. Large scale experimental effects of three levels of sheep densities on an alpine ecosystem. Oikos 117: 87–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Austrheim, G., J.D.M. Speed, V. Martinsen, J. Mulder, and A. Mysterud. 2014. Experimental effects of herbivore density on aboveground plant biomass in an alpine grassland ecosystem. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 46: 535–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Austrheim, G., Speed, J.D.M., Evju, M., Hester, A.J., Holand, Ø., Loe, L.E., Martinsen, V., Mobæk, R., Mulder, J., Steen, H., Thompson, D.B.A. and Mysterud. A. 2016. Synergies and trade-offs between ecosystem services in an alpine ecosystem grazed by sheep—An experimental approach. Basic and Applied Ecology.Google Scholar
  11. Averis, A.M., A.B.G. Averis, H.J.B. Birks, D. Horsfield, D.B.A. Thompson, and M.J.M. Yeo. 2004. An illustrated guide to British upland vegetation. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Bryn, A. 2011. GIS-based prognosis of potential forest regeneration affecting tourism locations and cultural landscapes in South Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism 11: 166–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Church, M.J., S.V. Arge, K.J. Edwards, P.L. Ascough, J.M. Bond, G.T. Cook, S.J. Dockrill, A.J. Dugmore, T.H. McGovern, C. Nesbitt, and I.A. Simpson. 2013. The Vikings were not the first colonizers of the Faroe Islands. Quaternary Science Reviews 77: 228–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Condliffe, I. 2009. Policy change in the uplands. In Drivers of environmental change in the uplands, ed. A. Bonn, T. Allott, K. Hubacek, and J. Stewart. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Dahl, M.-P.J., L.E. Mortensen, N.H. Jensen, and A. Veihe. 2013. Magnitude-frequency characteristics and preparatory factors for spatial debris-slide distribution in the northern Faroe Islands. Geomorphology 188(15): 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeGabriel, J.L., S.D. Albon, D.A. Fielding, D.J. Riach, S. Westaway, and R.J. Irvine. 2011. The presence of sheep leads to increases in plant diversity and reductions in the impact of deer on heather. Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 1269–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dennis, P., J. Doering, J.A. Stockan, J.R. Jones, M.E. Rees, J.E. Vale, and A.R. Sibbald. 2004. Consequences for biodiversity of reducing inputs to upland temperate pastures: Effects on beetles (Coleoptera) of cessation of nitrogen fertilizer application and reductions in stocking rates of sheep. Grass & Forage Science 59: 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dennis, P., J. Skartveit, D.I. McCracken, R.J. Pakeman, K. Beaton, A. Kunaver, and D.M. Evans. 2008. The effect of livestock grazing on foliar arthropods associated with bird diet in upland grasslands of Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dýrmundsson, Ó.R. 2006. Sustainability of sheep and goat production in North European countries—From the Arctic to the Alps. Small Ruminant Research 62: 151–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Evans, D.M., S.M. Redpath, D.A. Elston, S.A. Evans, R.J. Mitchell, and P. Dennis. 2006a. To graze or not to graze? Sheep, voles, forestry and nature conservation in the British uplands. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 499–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans, D.M., S.M. Redpath, S.A. Evans, D.A. Elston, C.J. Gardner, P. Dennis, and R.J. Pakeman. 2006b. Low intensity, mixed livestock grazing improves the breeding abundance of a common insectivorous passerine. Biology Letters 2: 636–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, D., N. Villar, N. Littlewood, R. Pakeman, S. Evans, P. Dennis, J. Skartveit, and S. Redpath. 2015. The cascading impacts of livestock grazing in upland ecosystems: A 10-year experiment. Ecosphere 6(3): 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fosaa. A.M. 2015. The relative contribution of grazing and climate variation on vegetation change in alpine area. Fróðskaparit 62. Retrieved from http://fsj.um.fo/ojs/index.php/frit/article/view/28/html_7. doi: 10.18602/fsj.v62i0.28.
  24. Fosaa, A.M., and E. Olsen. 2007. The impact of grazing on mountain vegetation and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiont. Fróðskaparrit 55: 177–187.Google Scholar
  25. Fuller, R.J., and S.J. Gough. 1999. Changes in sheep numbers in Britain: implications for bird populations. Biological Conservation 91: 73–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Greenland Agricultural Consulting Services website 2014. Accessed September 2, 2014, from http://www.nunalerineq.gl/english/landbrug/faare.htm.
  27. Hartley, S.E., and R.J. Mitchell. 2005. Manipulation of nutrients and grazing: lessons on heather moor. Journal of Ecology 93: 990–1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hegrenes, A. and Asheim, L. J. 2006. Verdi av fôr frå utmarksbeite og sysselsetjing i beitebaserte næringar. (Value of feed from outfield grazing and employment in grazing based businesses. In Norwegian). Notat 2005–2016, 28 pp. http://nilf.no/publikasjoner/Notater/2006/Verdi_av_for_fra_utmarksbeite_og_sysselsetting_i_beitebaserte_naeringar-Innhold.
  29. Hester, A.J., and G.J. Baillie. 1998. Spatial and temporal patterns of heather use by sheep and deer within natural heather/grass mosaics. Journal of Applied Ecology 35: 772–784.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hester, A.J., K. Lempa, S. Neuvonen, K. Høegh, J. Feilberg, S. Arnthorsdottir, and G.R. Iason. 2005. Birch sapling response to severity and timing of domestic herbivore browsing—Implications for management. In Plant ecology, herbivory and human impact in Nordic Mountain Birch forests, ed. F. Wielgolaski, P.S. Karlsson, S. Neuvonen, and D. Thannheiser. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  31. Hulme, P.D., R.J. Pakeman, L. Torvell, J.M. Fisher, and I.J. Gordon. 1999. The effects of controlled sheep grazing on the dynamics of upland Agrostis-Festuca grassland. Journal of Applied Ecology 36: 886–900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hunter, J. 2016. Set adrift upon the world: The Sutherland Clearances. Edinburgh: Birlinn Ltd.Google Scholar
  33. Johannesen, A.B., A. Nielsen, and A. Skonhoft. 2013. Livestock management at northern latitudes. Potential effects of climate effects in sheep farming. Ecological Economics 93: 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johansen, J. 1985. Studies in the vegetational history of the Faroe and Shetland Islands. Tórshavn: Føroya Fróðskaparfelag.Google Scholar
  35. Jónsdóttir, I.S. 1984. Áhrif beitar á gróður Auðkúluheiðar (Effects of grazing on the vegetation of Auðkúluheiði heathlands. In Icelandic with English summary). Náttúrufræðingurinn 53: 19–40.Google Scholar
  36. Jónsdóttir, I.S. 1991. Effects of sheep grazing on tiller size and population dynamics in a clonal sedge (Carex bigelowii). Oikos 62: 177–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jónsdóttir, I.S., B. Magnússon, J. Gudmundsson, Á. Elmarsdóttir, and H. Hjartarson. 2005. Variable sensitivity of plant communities in Iceland to experimental warming. Global Change Biology 11: 553–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Loe, L.E., A. Mysterud, A. Stien, H. Steen, D.M. Evans, and G. Austrheim. 2007. Positive short-term effects of sheep grazing on the alpine avifauna. Biology Letters 3: 109–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mabille, G., A. Stein, T. Tveraa, A. Mysterud, H. Brøseth, and J.D.C. Linnell. 2015. Sheep farming and large carnivores: What are the factors influencing claimed losses? Ecosphere 6: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Magnússon, B. & Magnússon, S.H. 1992. Vegetation and plant preferences of sheep in a grazing trial on an alpine heathland range in northern Iceland. In Icelandic with English summary. Rala report 159, Agricultural Research Institute, Reykjavik, Iceland. 106 pp.Google Scholar
  41. Magnússon, B., et al. 2006. Vöktun á ástandi og líffræðilegri fjölbreytni úthaga 2005. (Monitoring rangelands condition and biodiversity. In Icelandic). Fræðaþing Landbúnaðarins 2006: 221–232.Google Scholar
  42. Massa, C., V. Bichet, E. Gauthier, B.B. Perren, O. Mathieu, C. Petit, F. Monna, J. Giraudeau, R. Losno, and H. Richard. 2012. A 2500 year record of natural and anthropogenic soil erosion in South Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews 32: 119130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Milchunas, D.G., and W.K. Lauenroth. 1993. Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs 63: 327–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Milne, J.A., C.P.D. Birch, A.J. Hester, H.M. Armstrong, and A. Robertson. 1998. The impact of vertebrate herbivores on the natural heritage of the Scottish uplands—A review. Review No: Scottish Natural Heritage. 95.Google Scholar
  45. Mobæk, R., A. Mysterud, Ø. Holand, and G. Austrheim. 2012. Age, density and temporal effects on diet composition of sheep on alpine ranges: 6 years of experimental data. Basic and Applied Ecology 13: 466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Monbiot, G. 2013. Feral: Searching for enchantment on the frontiers of re-wilding. Bristol: Allen Lane.Google Scholar
  47. Mysterud, A. 2006. The concept of overgrazing and its role in management of large herbivores. Wildlife Biology 12: 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mysterud, A., and G. Austrheim. 2008. The effect of domestic sheep on forage plants of wild reindeer: A landscape scale experiment. European Journal of Wildlife Research 54: 461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mysterud, A., R. Aaserud, L.O. Hansen, K. Åkra, S. Olberg, and G. Austrheim. 2010. Large herbivore grazing and invertebrates in an alpine ecosystem. Basic and Applied Ecology 11: 320–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mysterud, A., Y. Rekdal, L.E. Loe, M. Angeloff, R. Mobæk, Ø. Holand, and G.-H. Strand. 2014. Evaluation of landscape-level grazing capacity for domestic sheep in alpine rangelands. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67: 132–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nedkvitne, J.J., T.H. Garmo, and H. Staaland. 1995. Beitedyr I kulturlandskap (Grazers in cultural landscapes). Oslo: AS Landbruksforlaget.Google Scholar
  52. Nordic Council of Ministers 2007. Nordic Statistical Yearbook 2007.Google Scholar
  53. OECD. 2014. OECD environmental performance reviews: Iceland 2014. Paris: OECD Publishing. doi: 10.1787/9789264214200-en.Google Scholar
  54. Olsen, E., Thórhallsdóttir, A.G., Wehn, S., Fosaa, A.M., Bjarnason, G., Mortensen, L. et al. 2014. Sustainable grazing in subarctic environments with regard to vegetation and soil processes. Gramar Research, Tórshavn. http://gramar.stovu.net/?p=950.
  55. Pakeman, R.J. 2004. Consistency of plant species and trait responses to grazing along a productivity gradient: A multi-site analysis. Journal of Ecology 92: 893–905.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pakeman, R.J., and A.J. Nolan. 2009. Setting sustainable grazing levels for heather moorland: A multi-site analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Pollock, M.L., J.P. Holland, C. Morgan-Davies, J. Morgan-Davies, and J. Waterhouse. 2013. Reduced sheep grazing and biodiversity: A novel approach to selecting and measuring biodiversity indicators. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66: 87–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Reed, M.S., A. Bonn, W. Slee, N. Beharry-Borg, J. Birch, I. Brown, T.P. Burt, D. Chapman, P.J. Chapman, G. Clay, S.J. Cornell, E.D.G. Fraser, J. Holden, J.A. Hodgson, K. Hubacek, B. Irvine, N. Jin, M.J. Kirkby, W.E. Kunin, O. Moore, D. Moseley, C. Prell, C. Quinn, S. Redpath, C. Reid, S. Stagl, L.C. Stringer, M. Termansen, S. Thorp, W. Towers, and F. Worral. 2009. Future of the Uplands. Land Use Policy 2(26): 204–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rekdal, Y., and M. Angeloff. 2007. Vegetasjon og beite i Setesdal Vesthei. Skog og Landskap 8: 1–40. (In Norwegian).Google Scholar
  60. Romstad, E. and Skonhoft, A. 2014. Jordbruk (Agriculture). Ch. 12 in Flaaten, O. and Skonhoft, A. Naturressursenes Økonomi (The Economics of Natural Resources). Gyldendal Akademisk, Oslo. .Google Scholar
  61. Scottish Agricultural College. 2007. Conservation grazing of semi-natural habitats. Technical Note 586.Google Scholar
  62. Scottish Government website. 2014. Accessed April 20, 2014, from http://www.scotland.gov.uk/topics/statistics/browse/agriculture-fisheries/agritopics/sheep.
  63. Seager, R., D.S. Battisti, J. Yin, N. Gordon, N. Naik, A.C. Clement, and M.A. Cane. 2002. Is the Gulf Stream responsible for Europe’s mild winters? Quarterly Journal of the Meteorological Society 128: 2563–2586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Skonhoft, A., G. Austrheim, and A. Mysterud. 2010. A bioeconomic sheep-vegetation trade-off model: An analysis of the Nordic sheep farming system. Natural Resource Modeling 23: 354–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, R.S., D. Charman, S.P. Rushton, R.A. Sanderson, J.M. Simkin, and R.S. Shiel. 2003. Vegetation change in an ombrotrophic mire in northern England after excluding sheep. Applied Vegetation Science 6: 261–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Smith, S.W., D. Johnson, S.L.O. Quin, K. Munro, R.J. Pakeman, R. van der Wal, and S.J. Woodin. 2015. Combination of herbivore removal and nitrogen deposition increases upland carbon storage. Global Change Biology 21: 3036–3048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Speed, J.D.M., G. Austrheim, A.J. Hester, and A. Mysterud. 2010. Experimental evidence for herbivore limitation of the treeline. Ecology 91: 3414–3420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Speed, J.D.M., G. Austrheim, A.J. Hester, A. Mysterud, and R. Ejrnæs. 2012. Elevational advance of alpine plant communities is buffered by herbivory. Journal of Vegetation Science 23: 617–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Speed, J.D.M., G. Austrheim, and A. Mysterud. 2013. The response of plant diversity to grazing varies along an elevational gradient. Journal of Ecology 101: 1225–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Speed, J.D.M., V. Martinsen, A. Mysterud, J. Mulder, Ø. Holand, and G. Austrheim. 2014. Long-term increase in aboveground carbon stocks following grazer exclusion and forest expansion in alpine ecosystems. Ecosystems 17: 1138–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Statistics Iceland. 2013. www.statice.is/Statistics.
  72. Steen, H., A. Mysterud, and G. Austrheim. 2005. Sheep grazing and rodent populations: Evidence of negative interactions from a landscape scale experiment. Oecologia 143: 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Steffen, W., K. Richardson, J. Rockström, S.E. Cornell, I. Fetzer, E.M. Bennet, R. Biggs, S.R. Carpenter, W. de Vries, C.A. de Wit, C. Folke, D. Gerten, J. Heinke, G.M. Mace, L.M. Persson, V. Ramanathan, B. Reyers, and S. Sörlin. 2015. Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 347: 1259855. doi: 10.1126/science.1259855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Steinheim, G., L.A. Nordheim, R.B. Weladji, I.J. Gordon, T. Âdnøy, and Ø. Holand. 2005. Differences in choice of diet between sheep breeds grazing mountain pastures in Norway. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica; Section A-Animal Science 55: 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tapio, M., I. Tapio, Z. Grislis, L.-E. Holm, S. Jeppson, J. Kantanem, I. Micceikiene, I. Olsaker, H. Viinalass, and E. Eythorsdottir. 2005. Native breeds demonstrate high contributions to the molecular variation in northern European sheep. Molecular Ecology 14: 3951–3963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Thompson, D.B.A., A.J. Macdonald, J.H. Marsden, and C.A. Galbraith. 1995. Upland heather moorland in Great Britain: A review of international importance, vegetation change, and some objectives for nature conservation. Biological Conservation 71: 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Thompson, D.B.A., and J. Miles. 1995. Heaths and moorland: some conclusions and questions regarding environmental change. In Heaths and moorland: Cultural landscapes, ed. D.B.A. Thompson, A.J. Hester, and M.B. Usher, 362–387. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  78. Thompson, R. 2009. Sustainability of hill sheep flocks in England. Small Ruminant Research 86: 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Thórhallsdóttir, A.G. 2003. Áhrif beitar á gróðurfar og landslag (The effect of grazing on vegetation and landscape). Fræðaƥing landbúnaðarins 2005: 60–65 (In Icelandic).Google Scholar
  80. Thórhallsdóttir, A.G., A.D. Juliusson, and H. Ogmundardottir. 2013. The sheep, the market and the soil: Environmental destruction in the Icelandic highlands 1880–1910. In Northscapes: History, technology and the making of northern environments, ed. D. Jørgensen, and S. Sörlin, 155–173. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Pres.Google Scholar
  81. UK Agriculture website. 2015. Accessed November 8, 2015, from www.ukagriculture.com/livestock/sheep_industry.cfm.
  82. Vatn, S. 2009. The sheep industry in the Nordic countries. Small Ruminant Research 86: 80–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. van der Wal, R., I.S.K. Pearce, R. Brooker, D. Scott, D. Welch, and S.J. Woodin. 2003. Interplay between nitrogen deposition and grazing causes habitat degradation. Ecology Letters 6: 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. van der Wal, R., Bonn, A., Monteith, D., Reed, M., Blackstock, K., Hanley, N., Thompson, D., Evans, M. and Alonso, I. 2011. Mountains, Moorlands and Heaths. In The UK National Ecosystem Assessment Technical Report. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC.Google Scholar
  85. WCED. 1987. Our common future. World Commission on Environment and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Welch, D., and D. Scott. 1995. Studies in the grazing of heather moorland in north-east Scotland. VI. 20-year trends in botanical composition. Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 595–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Worrall, F., M.G. Evans, A. Bonn, M.S. Reed, D. Chapman, and J. Holden. 2009. Can carbon offsetting pay for upland ecological restoration? Science of the Total Environment 408: 26–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise C. Ross
    • 1
  • Gunnar Austrheim
    • 2
  • Leif-Jarle Asheim
    • 3
  • Gunnar Bjarnason
    • 4
  • Jon Feilberg
    • 5
  • Anna Maria Fosaa
    • 6
  • Alison J. Hester
    • 1
  • Øystein Holand
    • 7
  • Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir
    • 8
    • 9
  • Lis E. Mortensen
    • 10
  • Atle Mysterud
    • 11
  • Erla Olsen
    • 12
  • Anders Skonhoft
    • 13
    • 14
  • James D. M. Speed
    • 2
  • Geir Steinheim
    • 7
  • Des B. A. Thompson
    • 15
    • 16
  • Anna Gudrún Thórhallsdóttir
    • 17
  1. 1.The James Hutton InstituteAberdeenScotland, UK
  2. 2.Department of Natural History, University MuseumNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO)OsloNorway
  4. 4.Landbrugsfonden (Búnaðargrunnurin)TórshavnFaroe Islands
  5. 5.BiomediaRingstedDenmark
  6. 6.The Faroese Museum of Natural History (Føroya Náttúrugripasavn)TórshavnFaroe Islands
  7. 7.Department of Animal and Aquacultural SciencesNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  8. 8.Department of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavíkIceland
  9. 9.University Centre in SvalbardLongyearbyenNorway
  10. 10.JarðfeingiTórshavnFaroe Islands
  11. 11.Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Synthesis (CEES), Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  12. 12.Gramar ResearchTórshavnFaroe Islands
  13. 13.Department of EconomicsNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway
  14. 14.TrondheimNorway
  15. 15.Scottish Natural HeritageEdinburghScotland, UK
  16. 16.Hatfield CollegeDurham UniversityDurhamUK
  17. 17.Agricultural University of IcelandBorgarnesIceland

Personalised recommendations