Mapping ‘consistency’ in India’s climate change position: Dynamics and dilemmas of science diplomacy
- 668 Downloads
India’s position on climate change negotiations is likely to have far reaching implications for the success of global climate cooperation. Since the beginning of negotiations, the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) remained the centerpiece of India’s stand. The stand started to evolve at the 15th Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change at Copenhagen in 2009, when India accepted voluntary commitments to reduce emission intensity. Though India still swears by CBDR, status of the principle in the negotiations has become doubtful after the Durban Climate Conference in 2011 committed all parties to take emission targets. This paper traces major transition points in India’s negotiating position over the years and provides a descriptive context of its climate-related concerns. It analyzes the interview responses of 15 top scientists, experts, and negotiators to build upon core areas of climate change issues in India, its future role, and position in negotiations. Interviewees, in general, were in favor of protecting the carbon space for the poor who had very low emissions.
KeywordsGlobal climate negotiations Science diplomacy India Commitments Policy
The authors thank Raj Kumar Gupta, Sanjay Chaturvedi, and Pushpinder Syal for diligently going through the manuscript and suggesting appropriate changes. Interviewees deserve our special gratitude for sparing their time for comments, suggestions, and outlook. The authors are indebted to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi, for funding this research.
- Bajoria, J., and E. Pan. 2010. The U.S.–India nuclear deal. Council on Foreign Relations, November 5. http://www.cfr.org/india/us-india-nuclear-deal/p9663.
- Bellman, E., and P. Kenny. 2014. India blocks WTO agreement to ease trade rules. Wall Street Journal, July 27. http://online.wsj.com/articles/india-blocks-wto-agreement-to-ease-trade-rules-1406471335.
- Black, R. 2010. UN climate body admits “mistake” on Himalayan glaciers. British Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.dhushara.com/Biocrisis/10/feb/himalayan_glaciers.pdf.
- Chauhan, C. 2014. India, China ignore UN climate change summit. Hindustan Times, September 23. http://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/india-china-ignore-un-climate-change-summit/article1-1267288.aspx.
- Climate Modelling Forum, India. 2009. India’s GHG emissions profile: Results of five climate modelling studies. New Delhi: Climate Modelling Forum, India.Google Scholar
- Dasgupta, C. 2011a. Climate change negotiations: Guarding the “overriding priorities.” Indian Foreign Affairs Journal 6: 217–229. http://www.associationdiplomats.org/publications/ifaj/Vol6/6.2/ORAL%20HISTORY.pdf.
- Dasgupta, C. 2011b. Sweet surrender: Jairam Ramesh has turned India’s climate change policy on its head. The Telegraph, January 17.Google Scholar
- ENB. 1995. Summary of the first conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 28 March–7 April 1995, vol. 12, No. 21. Earth Negotiations Bulletin. International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- ENB. 1997. Summary of the third conference of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 1–11 December 1997, vol. 12, No. 76. Earth Negotiations Bulletin. International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- ENB. 2001. Summary of the resumed sixth session of the conference of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: 16–27 July 2001, vol. 12, No. 176. Earth Negotiations Bulletin. International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- ENB. 2007. Summary of the thirteenth conference of the parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and third meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol: 3–15 December 2007, vol. 12, No. 354. Earth Negotiations Bulletin. International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- ENB. 2009. Summary of the Copenhagen climate change conference: 7–19 December 2009, vol. 12, No. 459. Earth Negotiations Bulletin. International Institute for Sustainable Development.Google Scholar
- FICCI. 2007. FICCI Climate Change Task Force Report. New Delhi: Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry.Google Scholar
- Gillies, R. 2011. Canada formally pulls out of Kyoto Protocol on climate change. Star Tribune, December 12, sec. World. http://www.startribune.com/world/135469408.html.
- Goldenberg, S. 2014. Is Narendra Modi a climate sceptic? The Guardian, September 9, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/sep/09/narendra-modi-india-prime-minister-climate-change-sceptic.
- Hindustan Times. 2009. Fissures within Indian climate team get clearer. Hindustan Times, December 9. http://www.hindustantimes.com/world-news/Europe/Fissures-within-Indian-climate-team-get-clearer/Article1-484392.aspx.
- India. 1991. Non-paper: Draft framework convention on climate change. http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/1991/a/eng/misc01a03.pdf.
- India. 2010a. ICA proposal at pre-COP ministerial. Government of India. http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/files/ICA_proposal_India.pdf.
- India. 2010b. Letter including India’s domestic mitigation actions. Communication to UNFCCC, January 30. http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_15/copenhagen_accord/application/pdf/indiacphaccord_app2.pdf.
- Javadekar, P. 2014. Text of statement made by MoS for environment, forests and climate change Prakash Javadekar at United Nations Climate Summit 2014. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=109947.
- Kyoto Protocol. 1997. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
- McDonald, K.C., and S.M. Patrick. 2010. UN security council enlargement and U.S. interests. Council Special Reports 59. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/UNSC_CSR59.pdf.
- Navroz K. Dubash. 2009. Climate Politics in India: Towards a progressive Indian and global climate change. Working Paper 1. New Delhi: Centre for Policy Research, Climate Initiative.Google Scholar
- Parry, M.L. (ed.). 2007. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, vol. 4. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Raina, V.K. 2009. Himalayan glaciers: A state-of-art review of glacial studies, glacial retreat and climate change. MoEF Discussion Paper. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/MoEF%20Discussion%20Paper%20_him.pdf.
- Ramesh, J. 2009. Environment Minister’s reply to the Discussion regarding impact of climate change in the Lok Sabha. Government of India. http://18.104.22.168/LssNew/psearch/Result15.aspx?dbsl=1436.
- Sengupta, S. 2012. International climate negotiations and India’s role. In Handbook of climate change and India: Development, politics and governance, 101–117. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sethi, N. 2009. Jairam for major shift at climate talks. The Times of India, October 19, New Delhi edition. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-10-19/india/28079441_1_greenhouse-gas-emission-reduction-climate-negotiations-change-negotiations.
- Sethi, N. 2011. Climate talks: Jayanthi Natarajan applauded for stirring speech in Durban. The Times of India, December 10, New Delhi edition. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-12-10/global-warming/30501920_1_climate-talks-climate-change-small-island-countries.
- Taylor, L., and T. Branigan. 2014. US and China strike deal on carbon cuts in push for global climate change pact. The Guardian, November 12, sec. Environment. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/12/china-and-us-make-carbon-pledge.
- The Economic Times. 2011. Jairam Ramesh’s shifting from Environment to Rural Development Ministry brings cheers to some. The Economic Times, July 13. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2011-07-13/news/29768961_1_jairam-ramesh-polavaram-dam-environment-ministry.
- The Guardian. 2011. Jairam Ramesh’s legacy is an Indian environment ministry with an identity. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2011/jul/13/jairam-ramesh-india-environment-ministry.
- The Times of India. 2009. Jairam persuades negotiators to join climate talks. The Times of India, December 7, sec. India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-12-07/india/28069926_1_climate-talks-carbon-intensity-cuts-chandrasekhar-dasgupta.
- UNFCCC. 1992. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
- UNFCCC. 2011. Report of the conference of the parties on its sixteenth session, held in Cancun from 29 November to 10 December 2010. UNFCCC.Google Scholar
- US Congress. 1997. Byrd–Hagel Resolution. S. Res. 98.Google Scholar
- Walsh, B. 2009. COP15: Climate-change conference: Lessons from the Copenhagen climate talks. Time, December 21. http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1929071_1929070_1949054,00.html.