AMBIO

, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 178–193 | Cite as

Consequence of altered nitrogen cycles in the coupled human and ecological system under changing climate: The need for long-term and site-based research

  • Hideaki Shibata
  • Cristina Branquinho
  • William H. McDowell
  • Myron J. Mitchell
  • Don T. Monteith
  • Jianwu Tang
  • Lauri Arvola
  • Cristina Cruz
  • Daniela F. Cusack
  • Lubos Halada
  • Jiří Kopáček
  • Cristina Máguas
  • Samson Sajidu
  • Hendrik Schubert
  • Naoko Tokuchi
  • Jaroslav Záhora
Review

Abstract

Anthropogenically derived nitrogen (N) has a central role in global environmental changes, including climate change, biodiversity loss, air pollution, greenhouse gas emission, water pollution, as well as food production and human health. Current understanding of the biogeochemical processes that govern the N cycle in coupled human–ecological systems around the globe is drawn largely from the long-term ecological monitoring and experimental studies. Here, we review spatial and temporal patterns and trends in reactive N emissions, and the interactions between N and other important elements that dictate their delivery from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems, and the impacts of N on biodiversity and human society. Integrated international and long-term collaborative studies covering research gaps will reduce uncertainties and promote further understanding of the nitrogen cycle in various ecosystems.

Keywords

Atmospheric deposition Biogeochemistry Water quality N2Nitrogen leaching 

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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hideaki Shibata
    • 1
  • Cristina Branquinho
    • 2
  • William H. McDowell
    • 3
  • Myron J. Mitchell
    • 4
  • Don T. Monteith
    • 5
  • Jianwu Tang
    • 6
  • Lauri Arvola
    • 7
  • Cristina Cruz
    • 2
  • Daniela F. Cusack
    • 8
  • Lubos Halada
    • 9
  • Jiří Kopáček
    • 10
  • Cristina Máguas
    • 11
  • Samson Sajidu
    • 12
  • Hendrik Schubert
    • 13
  • Naoko Tokuchi
    • 14
  • Jaroslav Záhora
    • 15
  1. 1.Field Science Center for Northern BiosphereHokkaido UniversityKita-kuJapan
  2. 2.Centro de Biologia AmbientalFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Natural Resources and the EnvironmentUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  4. 4.College of Environmental Science and ForestryState University of New YorkSyracuseUSA
  5. 5.NERC Centre for Ecology & HydrologyLancaster Environment CentreLancasterUK
  6. 6.Ecosystems CenterMarine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA
  7. 7.Lammi Biological StationUniversity of HelsinkiLammiFinland
  8. 8.Department of GeographyUniversity of California - Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  9. 9.Institute of Landscape Ecology SASNitraSlovakia
  10. 10.Institute of Hydrobiology Biology Centre ASCRČeské BudějoviceCzech Republic
  11. 11.Center for Environmental Biology, SIIAF - Stable Isotopes and Instrumental Analysis FacilityFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  12. 12.Chemistry Department, Chancellor CollegeUniversity of MalawiZombaMalawi
  13. 13.Institut für Biowissenschaften, Lehrstuhl ÖkologieUniversität RostockRostockGermany
  14. 14.Field Science Education and Research CenterKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  15. 15.Mendel University in BrnoBrnoCzech Republic

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