AMBIO

, Volume 42, Issue 8, pp 1037–1046

How Resilient Are Europe’s Inshore Fishing Communities to Change? Differences Between the North and the South

  • Maria Hadjimichael
  • Alyne Delaney
  • Michel J. Kaiser
  • Gareth Edwards-Jones
Article

Abstract

One would hypothesize that the Common Fisheries Policy, as the umbrella framework for fisheries management in the EU would have the greatest impact on fishers’ communities across Europe. There are, however, biological, economic, social, and political factors, which vary among fishing communities that can affect how these communities react to changes. This paper explores the links between institutional arrangements and ecological dynamics in two European inshore fisheries socio-ecological systems, using a resilience framework. The Mediterranean small-scale fishers do not seem to have been particularly affected by the Common Fisheries Policy regulations but appear affected by competition with the politically strong recreational fishers and the invasion of the rabbit fish population. The inshore fishers along the East coast of Scotland believe that their interests are not as sufficiently protected as the interests of their offshore counterpart. Decisions and initiatives at global, EU, and sometimes national level, tend to take into account those fisheries sectors which have a national economic importance. A socio-ecological analysis can shift the focus from biological and economic aspects to more sustainable long-term delivery of environmental benefits linked to human wellbeing.

Keywords

Resilience Artisanal fisheries Socio-ecological systems Governance Cyprus Scotland Mediterranean 

References

  1. Anderies, J.M., M.A. Janssen, and E. Ostrom. 2004. A framework to analyze robustness of social–ecological systems from an institutional perspective. Ecology and Society 9: 18.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J., and J. Guillen. 2009. The 2009 annual economic report on the European Fishing Fleet. Retrieved June 1, 2010, from http://stecf.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/43805/44850/09-11_SG-ECA+09-01+-+2009+AER+on+EU+fishing+fleet_JRC55030.pdf.
  3. Davidson, D.J. 2010. The applicability of the concept of resilience to social systems: Some sources of optimism and nagging doubts. Society and Natural Resources 23: 1135–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Department of Fisheries and Marine Research (DFMR). 2008. Annual report for the year 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2010 from http://www.moa.gov.cy/moa/dfmr/dfmr.nsf/DMLreports_en/DMLreports_en?OpenDocument&Start=1&Count=1000&Expand=2.
  5. Egestad, P.S. 2001. Distrusting people while trusting numbers. The Common Property Resource Digest 56: 3–5.Google Scholar
  6. European Commission. 2009. Green Paper: Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy. COM(2009) 163 Final, Brussels, April 22, 2009.Google Scholar
  7. Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change 16: 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Folke, C., and F. Berkes. 1995. Resilience and the co-evolution of ecosystems and institutions. Paper presented at the Fifth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property, Reinventing the Commons, Norway.Google Scholar
  9. Folke, C., T. Hahn, P. Olsson, and J. Norberg. 2005. Adaptive governance of social–ecological systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 30: 441–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hadjimichael, M., G. Edwards-Jones, and M.J. Kaiser. 2010. Distribution of the burden of fisheries regulations in Europe: The north/south divide. Marine Policy 34: 795–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadjimichael, M., M.J. Kaiser, and G.J. Edwards-Jones. 2013. The impact of regulatory obligations on fishers’ income: Identifying perceptions using a market-testing tool. Fisheries Research 137: 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Harvey, D. 1989. The conditions of postmodernity. London: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  13. Ifremer. 2007. Small-scale coastal fisheries in Europe. Final Report of the Contract No. FISH/2005/10, 447.Google Scholar
  14. Jacquet, J., D. Pauly, D. Ainley, S. Holt, P. Dayton, and J. Jackson. 2010. Seafood stewardship in crisis. Nature 467: 28–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Janssen, M.A. 2006. Historical institutional analysis of social–ecological systems. Journal of Institutional Economics 2: 127–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Janssen, M.A., and E. Ostrom. 2006. Governing social–ecological systems. In Handbook of computational economics, ed. L. Tesfatsion, and K.L. Judd, 1465–1509. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  17. Janssen, M., T. Kohler, and M. Scheffer. 2003. Sunk-cost effects and vulnerability to collapse in ancient societies. Current Anthropology 44: 722–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Janssen, M.A., J.M. Anderies, and E. Ostrom. 2007. Robustness of social–ecological systems to spatial and temporal variability. Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal 20: 307–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Mahoney, J., and K. Thelen. 2010. Explaining institutional change: Ambiguity, agency, and power. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. McCay, B.J. 1978. Systems ecology, people ecology, and the anthropology of fishing communities. Human Ecology 6: 397–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Morales-Nin, B., J. Moranta, C. Garcia, M.P. Tugores, A.M. Grau, F. Riera, and M. Cerdà. 2005. The recreational fishery off Majorca Island (Western Mediterranean): Some implications for coastal resource management. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal Du Conseil 62: 727–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nelson, D.R., W.N. Adger, and K. Brown. 2007. Adaptation to environmental change: Contributions of a resilience framework. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 32: 395–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nuttall, M. 2000. Crisis, risk and deskilment in North-east Scotland’s fishing industry. In Fisheries dependent regions, ed. D. Symes, 106–115. Oxford: Fishing News Books.Google Scholar
  24. Österblom, H., M. Sissenwine, D. Symes, M. Kadin, T. Daw, and C. Folke. 2011. Incentives, social–ecological feedbacks and European fisheries. Marine Policy 35: 568–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pauly, D., V. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese, and F. Torres Jr. 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279: 860–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ponte, S. 2008. Greener than Thou: The political economy of fish ecolabeling and its local manifestations in South Africa. World Development 36: 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Raakjær, J., P. Degnbol, T.J. Hegland, and D. Symes. 2012. Regionalisation—What will the future bring? Maritime Studies 11: 11. doi:10.1186/2212-9790-11-11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Robards, M.D., and J.A. Greenberg. 2007. Global constraints on rural fishing communities: Whose resilience is it anyway? Fish and Fisheries 8: 14–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rossiter, T., and S. Stead. 2003. Days at sea: From the fishers’ mouths. Marine Policy 27: 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rova, C. 2000. Natural resources and institutional performance: Linking social and ecological systems in fisheries. Retrieved May 12, 2010, from http://swepub.kb.se/bib/swepub:oai:ltu01:455004?tab2=abs&language=en.
  31. Symes, D. 2012. Regionalising the common fisheries policy: Context, content and controversy. Maritime Studies 11: 6. doi:10.1186/2212-9790-11-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ternström, I. 2004. Disturbances and resilience in common-pool resource management systems. Paper presented at the Tenth Biennial Conference of the International Association for the Study of Common Property: The Commons in an Age of Global Transition: Challenges, Risks and Opportunities, Mexico.Google Scholar
  33. van Ginkel, R., and N. Steins. 2001. Multi-use conflicts in inshore waters. In Inshore fisheries management, ed. D. Symes, and J. Phillipson. Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  34. Walker, W., C.S. Holling, S.R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society 5(2): 5. Retrieved May 24, 2010, from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5.
  35. Walker, B. H., J.M. Anderies, A.P. Kinzig, and P. Ryan. 2006. Exploring resilience in social–ecological systems through comparative studies and theory development: Introduction to the special issue. Ecology and Society 11: 12. Retrieved May 24, 2010, from http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art12/.
  36. Young, O.R., F. Berkhout, G.C. Gallopin, M.A. Janssen, E. Ostrom, and S. van der Leeuw. 2006. The globalization of socio-ecological systems: An agenda for scientific research. Global Environmental Change 16: 304–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Hadjimichael
    • 1
  • Alyne Delaney
    • 1
  • Michel J. Kaiser
    • 2
  • Gareth Edwards-Jones
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Development and PlanningIFM AalborgAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.School of Ocean SciencesBangor UniversityMenai BridgeUK
  3. 3.Bangor UniversityGwyneddUK

Personalised recommendations