AMBIO

, Volume 42, Issue 8, pp 985–996 | Cite as

Adaptive Capacity of Fishing Communities at Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study from the Colombian Pacific

  • Rocío del Pilar Moreno-Sánchez
  • Jorge Higinio Maldonado
Article

Abstract

Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction.

Keywords

Resilience Coastal–marine resources Community involvement Colombian Pacific 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was done as part of the project “Socioeconomic monitoring in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape (ETPS)—Walton Family Foundation (WFF)” chapter Colombia, carried out by the Group of Studies on Environmental and Resource Economics at Universidad de los Andes, under the supervision of Conservation International CI and funded by the Walton Family Foundation WFF. We thank Maria Claudia Diaz Granados, from CI, for her support at the different stages of this research. We also thank Margoth Figueredo, survey supervisor, for assuring high-quality surveys from the Bazán community. The project had German Augusto Pachón-Gantiva as associate researcher and we recognize his contribution. We are grateful to the Bazán community for the support to the field work and, particularly, to the Community Council and its leaders. This paper has benefited greatly from the constructive comments of three anonymous referees. Any remaining error is authors’ responsibility.

Supplementary material

13280_2013_454_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (168 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 168 kb)

References

  1. Adger, W.N., T.P. Hughes, C. Folke, S.R. Carpenter, and J. Rockström. 2005. Social–ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309: 1036–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alban, F., G. Appéré, and J. Boncoeur. 2006. Economic analysis of marine protected areas: A literature review. EMPAFISH Project Booklet 3.Google Scholar
  3. Arin, T., and R.A. Kramer. 2002. Divers’ willingness to pay to visit marine sanctuaries: An exploratory study. Ocean and Coastal Management 45: 171–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armitage, D., F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday. 2007. Introduction: Moving beyond co-management. In Adaptive co-management: Collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance, ed. D. Armitage, F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday, 1–15. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aswani, S., and R.J. Hamilton. 2004. Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Environmental Conservation 31: 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balmford, A., P. Gravestock, N. Hockley, C.J. McClean, and C.M. Roberts. 2004. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101: 9694–9697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker, C.D., and K. Ghimire. 2003. Synergy between traditional ecological knowledge and conservation science supports forest preservation in Ecuador. Ecology and Society 8: 1.Google Scholar
  8. Berkes, F. 2007. Adaptive co-management and complexity: Exploring the many faces of co-management. In Adaptive co-management: Collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance, ed. D. Armitage, F. Berkes, and N. Doubleday, 19–37. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bhat, M.G. 2003. Application of non-market valuation to the Florida Keys marine reserve management. Journal of Environmental Management 67: 315–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brooks, N., W. Neil Adger, and P.M. Kelly. 2005. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Global Environmental Change 15: 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bush, G., N. Hanley, M. Moro, and D. Rondeau. 2012. Measuring the local opportunity costs of conservation: A provision point mechanism for willingness-to-accept. Stirling Economics Discussion Paper, 2012–2014. Stirling Management School.Google Scholar
  12. Charles, A., and L. Wilson. 2009. Human dimensions of marine protected areas. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christie, P. 2005. Observed and perceived environmental impacts of marine protected areas in two Southeast Asia sites. Ocean and Coastal Management 48: 252–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cinner, J.E., M. Fuentes, and H. Randriamahazo. 2009. Exploring social resilience in Madagascar’s marine protected areas. Ecology and Society 14: 41.Google Scholar
  15. Cinner, J.E., T.R. McClanahan, and A. Wamukota. 2010. Differences in livelihoods, socioeconomic characteristics, and knowledge about the sea between fishers and non-fishers living near and far from marine parks on the Kenyan coast. Marine Policy 34: 22–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cinner, J., T. McClanahan, N. Graham, T. Daw, J. Maina, S. Stead, A. Wamukota, K. Brown, et al. 2011. Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Global Environmental Change 22: 12–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coad, L., N.D. Burgess, B. Bomhard, and C. Besançon. 2009. Progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity’s 2010 and 2012 targets for protected area coverage. Parks: The International Journal for Protected Area Managers 17: 35–72.Google Scholar
  18. Cox, J.C. 2004. How to identify trust and reciprocity. Games and Economic Behavior 46: 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dixon, J.A. 1993. Economic benefits of marine protected areas. Oceanus 36: 35–40.Google Scholar
  20. Feres, J.C., and X. Mancera. 2001. The method of unsatisfied basic needs and applications in Latin America. Naciones Unidas, CEPAL, Division de Estadística y Proyecciones Económicas (in Spanish).Google Scholar
  21. Grootaert, C., and T. Van Bastelaer. 2002. Understanding and measuring social capital: A multidisciplinary tool for practitioners. Washington: World Bank Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Janishevski, L., K. Noonan-Mooney, S. B. Gidda, and K. J. Mulongoy. 2008. Protected areas in today’s world: Their values and benefits for the welfare of the planet. CBD Technical Series.Google Scholar
  23. Lora, E. 2005. Techniques of economic measurement: Methods and applications in Colombia. 3rd ed. Colombia: Alfa Omega (in Spanish).Google Scholar
  24. Lutchman, I., W. Aalbersberg, N. Conservancy, and G. Britain. 2005. Marine protected areas: Benefits and costs for islands. Mexico: WWF.Google Scholar
  25. Maldonado, J.H., and R.P. Moreno-Sánchez. 2013. Estimating the adaptive capacity of local communities at marine protected areas in Latin-America: A practical approach. Ecology and Society 18(3): 7.Google Scholar
  26. Marshall, N.A., and P.A. Marshall. 2007. Conceptualizing and operationalizing social resilience within commercial fisheries in northern Australia. Ecology and Society 12: 1.Google Scholar
  27. Mascia, M.B. 2003. The human dimension of coral reef marine protected areas: Recent social science research and its policy implications. Conservation Biology 17: 630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mascia, M.B., C. Claus, and R. Naidoo. 2010. Impacts of marine protected areas on fishing communities. Conservation Biology 24: 1424–1429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. McCarthy, J.J., O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken, and K.S. White. 2001. Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  30. McClanahan, T.R., J.E. Cinner, J. Maina, N.A.J. Graham, T.M. Daw, S.M. Stead, A. Wamukota, K. Brown, et al. 2008. Conservation action in a changing climate. Conservation Letters 1: 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McCrea-Strub, A., D. Zeller, U. Rashid Sumaila, J. Nelson, A. Balmford, and D. Pauly. 2011. Understanding the cost of establishing marine protected areas. Marine Policy 35: 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nardo, M., M. Saisana, A. Saltelli, S. Tarantola, A. Hoffman, and E. Giovannini. 2008. Handbook on constructing composite indicators: Methodology and user guide. Paris: OECD, European Commission, Joint Research Centre.Google Scholar
  33. Olsson, P., and C. Folke. 2001. Local ecological knowledge and institutional dynamics for ecosystem management: A study of Lake Racken watershed, Sweden. Ecosystems 4: 85–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Orencio, P.M., and M. Fujii. 2012. An index to determine vulnerability of communities in a coastal zone: A case study of Baler, Aurora, Philippines. AMBIO 42: 61–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ostrom, E. 2005. Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Plummer, R., and J. FitzGibbon. 2006. People matter: The importance of social capital in the co-management of natural resources. Natural Resources Forum 30: 51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pomeroy, R.S., M.B. Mascia, and R.B. Pollnac. 2007. Marine protected areas, the social dimension. Report and documentation of the expert workshop on marine protected areas and fisheries management: Review of issues and considerations, FAO, FAO Fisheries Report, Rome, 149–182.Google Scholar
  39. Pretty, J., and H. Ward. 2001. Social capital and the environment. World Development 29: 209–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sanchirico, J.N., K.A. Cochran, and P.M. Emerson. 2002. Marine protected areas: Economic and social implications. Washington: Resources for the Future.Google Scholar
  41. Smit, B., and O. Pilifosova. 2001. Adaptation to climate change in the context of sustainable development and equity. In Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. J.J. McCarthy, O.F. Canziani, N.A. Leary, D.J. Dokken, and K.S. White, 877–912. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, M.D., J. Lynham, J.N. Sanchirico, and J.A. Wilson. 2010. Political economy of marine reserves: Understanding the role of opportunity costs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 18300–18305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. United Nations. 1992. Text of the convention on biological diversity. http://www.cbd.int/convention/text/. Accessed May 2013.
  44. Uphoff, N. 2000. Understanding social capital: Learning from the analysis and experience of participation. In Social capital: A multifaceted perspective, ed. P. Dasgupta and I. Serageldin, 215–249. Washington: World Bank.Google Scholar
  45. Wales, M.P.A.N.S. 2008. A review of benefits of marine protected areas and related zoning considerations. New South Wales: Marine Parks Authority.Google Scholar
  46. Walker, J., and E. Ostrom. 2009. Trust and reciprocity as foundations for cooperation. Whom can we trust, 91–124.Google Scholar
  47. Walker, B., S. Carpenter, J. Anderies, N. Abel, G. Cumming, M. Janssen, L. Lebel, J. Norberg, et al. 2002. Resilience management in social–ecological systems: A working hypothesis for a participatory approach. Conservation Ecology 6: 14.Google Scholar
  48. Yohe, G., and R.S.J. Tol. 2002. Indicators for social and economic coping capacity: Moving toward a working definition of adaptive capacity. Global Environmental Change 12: 25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rocío del Pilar Moreno-Sánchez
    • 1
  • Jorge Higinio Maldonado
    • 2
  1. 1.Conservation strategy fundBogotáColombia
  2. 2.Facultad de Economía – CEDEUniversidad de los AndesBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations