AMBIO

, Volume 42, Issue 1, pp 83–89 | Cite as

Persistence and Changes in Bioavailability of Dieldrin, DDE, and Heptachlor Epoxide in Earthworms Over 45 Years

Report

Abstract

The finding of dieldrin (88 ng/g), DDE (52 ng/g), and heptachlor epoxide (19 ng/g) in earthworms from experimental plots after a single moderate application (9 kg/ha) 45 years earlier attests to the remarkable persistence of these compounds in soil and their continued uptake by soil organisms. Half-lives (with 95 % confidence intervals) in earthworms, estimated from exponential decay equations, were as follows: dieldrin 4.9 (4.3–5.7) years, DDE 5.3 (4.7–6.1) years, and heptachlor epoxide 4.3 (3.8–4.9) years. These half-lives were not significantly different from those estimated after 20 years. Concentration factors (dry weight earthworm tissue/dry weight soil) were initially high and decreased mainly during the first 11 years after application. By the end of the study, average concentration factors were 1.5 (dieldrin), 4.0 (DDE), and 1.8 (heptachlor epoxide), respectively.

Keywords

Organochlorine Insecticide Soil aging Bioconcentration 

References

  1. Alexander, M. 2000. Aging, bioavailability, and overestimation of risk from environmental pollutants. Environmental Science and Technology 34: 4259–4265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barker, R.J. 1958. Notes on some ecological effects of DDT sprayed on elms. The Journal of Wildlife Management 22: 269–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barraclough, D., T. Kearney, and A. Croxford. 2005. Bound residues: Environmental solution or future problem? Environmental Pollution 133: 85–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beyer, W., and C. Gish. 1980. Persistence in earthworms and potential hazards to birds of soil applied DDT, dieldrin and heptachlor. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beyer, W., and A. Krynitsky. 1989. Long-term persistence of dieldrin, DDT, and heptachlor epoxide in earthworms. AMBIO 18: 271–273.Google Scholar
  6. Edwards, C. 1966. Insecticide residues in soils. Residue Reviews 13: 132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edwards, C. 1973. Pesticide residues in soil and water. In Environmental pollution by pesticides, ed. C. Edwards, 409–458. New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edwards, C., and A. Thompson. 1973. Pesticides and the soil fauna. Residue Reviews 45: 1–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fruend, H., U. Graefe, and S. Tischer. 2011. Earthworms as bioindicators of soil quality. In Biology of earthworms, ed. A. Karaca, 261–278. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fuhremann, T.W., and E.P. Lichtenstein. 1978. Release of soil-bound methyl [14C] parathion residues and their uptake by earthworms and oat plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26: 605–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gaw, S., G. Northcott, N. Kim, A. Wilkins, and J. Jensen. 2012. Comparison of earthworm and chemical assays of the bioavailability of aged 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, and heavy metals in orchard soils. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 31: 1306–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gevao, B., K.T. Semple, and K.C. Jones. 2000. Bound pesticide residues in soils: A review. Environmental Pollution 108: 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gish, C.D. 1970. Organochlorine insecticide residues in soils and soil invertebrates from agricultural lands. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 3: 241.Google Scholar
  14. Gish, C.D., and D.L. Hughes. 1982. Residues of DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor in earthworms during two years following application. Special scientific report—wildlife/United States. Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  15. Harris, M., L. Wilson, J. Elliott, C. Bishop, A. Tomlin, and K. Henning. 2000. Transfer of DDT and metabolites from fruit orchard soils to American robins (Turdus migratorius) twenty years after agricultural use of DDT in Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39: 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelsey, J., A. Colino, and J. White. 2005. Effect of species differences, pollutant concentration, and residence time in soil on the bioaccumulation of 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene by three earthworm species. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24: 703–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirby, R.M., E. Matthews, and M. Bailey. 1967. Soil survey, Prince Georges County, Maryland, US Soil Conservation Service, Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station.Google Scholar
  18. Li, X.H., X.Z. Wang, W. Wang, X.N. Jiang, and X.B. Xu. 2010. Profiles of Organochlorine pesticides in earthworms from urban leisure areas of Beijing, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84: 473–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Morrison, D.E., B.K. Robertson, and M. Alexander. 2000. Bioavailability to earthworms of aged DDT, DDE, DDD, and dieldrin in soil. Environmental Science and Technology 34: 709–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. New Department of Health. 2012. Retrieved July 18, 2012, fromhttp://www.health.state.ny.us/environmental/outdoors/fish/health_advisories/.
  21. Reynolds, J.W. 1977. The earthworms (Lumbricidae and Sparganophilidae) of Ontario. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum.Google Scholar
  22. Search Superfund Site Information. 2012. Retrieved Oct 12, 2011, from http://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/srchsites.cfm.
  23. Stokes, J.D., G. Paton, and K.T. Semple. 2006. Behaviour and assessment of bioavailability of organic contaminants in soil: Relevance for risk assessment and remediation. Soil Use and Management 21: 475–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tetra Tech. 2009. Bioavailability Study Report for BARC 4-Building 033 Washdown Area and BARC 19—Trenches Behind Building 029. http://ars.usda.dandp.com/barcsuperfund/search_results.php. Accessed 18 July 2012.
  25. Verma, A., and M. Pillai. 1991. Bioavailability of soil-bound residues of DDT and HCH to earthworms. Current Science 61: 840–843.Google Scholar
  26. Wheatley, G., and J. Hardman. 1968. Organochlorine insecticide residues in earthworms from arable soils. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 19: 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Woodwell, G.M., P.P. Craig, and H.A. Johnson. 1971. DDT in the biosphere: Where does it go? Science 174: 1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Patuxent Wildlife Research CenterUS Geological SurveyBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Columbia Environmental Research Center, US Geological SurveyColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations