, Volume 41, Issue 8, pp 851–864 | Cite as

Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Weather Calling for an Integrated Approach to Assessment, Forecasting, and Communication of Air Quality

  • Thomas KleinEmail author
  • Jaakko Kukkonen
  • Åslög Dahl
  • Elissavet Bossioli
  • Alexander Baklanov
  • Aasmund Fahre Vik
  • Paul Agnew
  • Kostas D. Karatzas
  • Mikhail Sofiev
Review Paper


This article reviews interactions and health impacts of physical, chemical, and biological weather. Interactions and synergistic effects between the three types of weather call for integrated assessment, forecasting, and communication of air quality. Today’s air quality legislation falls short of addressing air quality degradation by biological weather, despite increasing evidence for the feasibility of both mitigation and adaptation policy options. In comparison with the existing capabilities for physical and chemical weather, the monitoring of biological weather is lacking stable operational agreements and resources. Furthermore, integrated effects of physical, chemical, and biological weather suggest a critical review of air quality management practices. Additional research is required to improve the coupled modeling of physical, chemical, and biological weather as well as the assessment and communication of integrated air quality. Findings from several recent COST Actions underline the importance of an increased dialog between scientists from the fields of meteorology, air quality, aerobiology, health, and policy makers.


Air quality Health impacts Pollen Bioaerosols Monitoring Modeling Policy 



This publication was supported by COST, in particular the COST Action ES0602 “Towards a European Network on Chemical Weather Forecasting and Information Systems”.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Klein
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jaakko Kukkonen
    • 2
  • Åslög Dahl
    • 3
  • Elissavet Bossioli
    • 4
  • Alexander Baklanov
    • 5
  • Aasmund Fahre Vik
    • 6
  • Paul Agnew
    • 7
  • Kostas D. Karatzas
    • 8
  • Mikhail Sofiev
    • 2
  1. 1.Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological InstituteVästra Frölunda, GothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Finnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of Biological and Environmental SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  4. 4.Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of PhysicsNational and Kapodestrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  5. 5.Danish Meteorological InstituteCopenhagenDenmark
  6. 6.NILU—Norwegian Institute for Air ResearchKjellerNorway
  7. 7.UK Met OfficeExeterUK
  8. 8.Aristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece

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