, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 479–489 | Cite as

Livelihood Security, Vulnerability and Resilience: A Historical Analysis of Chibuene, Southern Mozambique

  • Anneli EkblomEmail author


A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.


Livelihood security Vulnerability Resilience History Archaeology Palaeoecology 



Interviews were carried out through the assistance of Claudio Mandlate and Fernando Curasse, students from Eduardo Mondlane University, and Alfeu Maruccane, direçcão de Cultura Vilanculos. The fieldwork was supported by the Chibuene resort Baia do Paradiso. Acknowledgements also to Solange Macamo, direçcão de Cultura Mozambique, Professor Paul Sinclair and Dr. Amelie Berger, Uppsala University. Elisabet Green improved the text when it comes to language and Marilee Wood kindly improved the text further.


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Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Archaeology and Ancient HistoryUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

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