A Socio-Ecological Assessment Aiming at Improved Forest Resource Management and Sustainable Ecotourism Development in the Mangroves of Tanbi Wetland National Park, The Gambia, West Africa
- 1.2k Downloads
Although mangroves dominated by Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle are extending over 6000 ha in the Tanbi Wetland National Park (TWNP) (The Gambia), their importance for local populations (both peri-urban and urban) is not well documented. For the first time, this study evaluates the different mangrove resources in and around Banjul (i.e., timber, non-timber, edible, and ethnomedicinal products) and their utilization patterns, including the possibility of ecotourism development. The questionnaire-based results have indicated that more than 80% of peri-urban population rely on mangroves for timber and non-timber products and consider them as very important for their livelihoods. However, at the same time, urban households demonstrate limited knowledge on mangrove species and their ecological/economic benefits. Among others, fishing (including the oyster—Crassostrea cf. gasar collection) and tourism are the major income-generating activities found in the TWNP. The age-old practices of agriculture in some parts of the TWNP are due to scarcity of land available for agriculture, increased family size, and alternative sources of income. The recent focus on ecotourism (i.e., boardwalk construction inside the mangroves near Banjul city) received a positive response from the local stakeholders (i.e., users, government, and non-government organizations), with their appropriate roles in sharing the revenue, rights, and responsibilities of this project. Though the guidelines for conservation and management of the TWNP seem to be compatible, the harmony between local people and sustainable resource utilization should be ascertained.
KeywordsMangroves Socio-ecology Tanbi Wetland National Park Resource utilization Participatory methods The Gambia
This study was funded by the City Council of Oostende (Belgium). Special thanks are due to Tom Germonpré (Alderman in Ostend), Pa Sallah Jeng and Samba Fall (former and present Mayors of Banjul), Profs. Jonsyn-Ellis and Muhammadou M.O. Kah (former and present Vice-Chancellors of the University of The Gambia), Peter Vanslambrouck (Oostende–Banjul City Link Coordinator), Jacky Dereu and Mustapha for their courtesy and facilitation. Mr. Bah, Jatou, Kerai, Bakary, Dawda Badgie and Buba Carr Bah have helped us in both fieldwork and local language translation. Our earnest thanks to Abou and Ushman for their logistic support. Final thanks go to David Vande Wynckel, Mieke Vandaele and Prof. De Spiegeleire (KHBO, Oostende) for further engineering research on boardwalk construction in collaboration with the corresponding author. Authors are very grateful to the two unknown referees for their objective criticism and invaluable suggestions.
- Aikins, M.K., H. Pickering, P.L. Alonso, U. D’Alessandro, S.W. Lindsay, J. Todd, and B.M. Greenwood. 1993. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bed nets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 87: 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Avau, J., M. Cunha-Lignon, B. De Myttenaere, M.-F. Godart, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas. 2011. The commercial images promoting Caribbean mangroves to tourists: Case studies in Jamaica, Guadeloupe and Martinique. Journal of Coastal Research 64: 1277–1281.Google Scholar
- Cannicci, S., F. Bartolini, F. Dahdouh-Guebas, S. Fratini, C. Litulo, A. Macia, E.J. Mrabu, G. Penha-Lopes, et al. 2009. Effects of urban wastewater on crab and mollusc assemblages in equatorial and subtropical mangroves of East Africa. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84: 305–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chambers, R. 2002. Participatory workshops: A sourcebook of 21 sets of ideas and activities. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Central Statistics Department (CSD). 2004. Population and housing census of The Gambia—provisional results. Banjul: Department of State for Finance & Economics Affairs. Google Scholar
- Dahdouh-Guebas, F., S. Collin, D. Lo Seen, P. Rönnbäck, D. Depommier, T. Ravishankar, and N. Koedam. 2006. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India) for conservation and management purposes. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2: 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Debry, M. 2009. Opportunity study of an ecotouristic project in the Tanbi Wetland Complex in Banjul, The Gambia. MSc Thesis, Université Catholique de Louvain.Google Scholar
- Diop, E.S., G. Gordon, A.K. Semesi, A. Soumaré, N. Diallo, A. Guissé, M. Diouf, and J.S. Ayivor. 2002. Mangroves of Africa. In Mangrove Ecosystems: Function and Management, ed. L.D. Lacerda, 63–121. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Department of Parks and Wildlife Management (DPWM). 2000. Ramsar wetland study, The Gambia: Management plans for Niumi National Park, Bao Bolon Wetland Reserve and Tanbi Wetland Complex. Banjul: Department of State for Fisheries, Natural Resources and the Environment in collaboration with Ramsar Bureau.Google Scholar
- Department of Parks and Wildlife Management (DPWM). 2008. Tanbi Wetlands National Park Management Plan. Banjul: Department of Parks and Wildlife Management.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines, FAO forestry paper 117. Italy: FAO.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2004. Hatchery culture of bivalves. FAO fishery technical paper 471. Italy: FAO.Google Scholar
- Feka, N.Z., M.G. Manzano, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas. 2011. The effects of different gender harvesting practices on mangrove ecology and conservation in Cameroon. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management. doi: 10.1080/21513732.2011.606429.
- Foré, F. 2009. Analyse van de sociale, culturele en educatieve voorwaarden met betrekking tot de opzet van een duurzaam project in het Tanbi Wetland Complex te Gambia. MSc Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel (in Dutch, English summary).Google Scholar
- Global Environment Facility (GEF). 2002. Regional consolidated analysis of the first phase of the GEF MSP sub-Saharan African Project (#GF/6010-0016).Google Scholar
- Hernández-Cornejo, R., N. Koedam, A.R. Luna, M. Troell, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas. 2005. Remote sensing and ethnobotanical assessment of the mangrove forest changes in the Navachiste–San Ignacio–Macapule Lagoon Complex, Sinaloa, Mexico. Ecology and Society 10: 16.Google Scholar
- Hirani, P. 2005. Ethnoecological study of the mangroves of the Tanbi Wetland Complex, The Gambia. MSc Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel.Google Scholar
- Kairo, J.G., F. Dahdouh-Guebas, J. Bosire, and N. Koedam. 2001. Restoration and management of mangrove systems—A lesson for and from the East African region. South African Journal of Botany 67: 383–389.Google Scholar
- Kairo, J.G., F. Dahdouh-Guebas, and P.O. Gwada. 2002. Regeneration status of mangrove forests in Mida creek, Kenya: A compromised or secured future? Ambio 31: 562–568.Google Scholar
- Kinteh, S.L., and J.S. Sillah. 2005. Management of Mangrove Ecosystems, The Gambia, 36. Dakar: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).Google Scholar
- Maniatis, D. 2005. Retrospective study of the mangroves of the Tanbi Wetland Complex, The Gambia. MSc Thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel.Google Scholar
- Massó i Alemán, S., C. Bourgeois, W. Appeltans, B. Vanhoorne, N. De Hauwere, P. Stoffelen, A. Heughebaert, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas. 2010. The ‘Mangrove Reference Database and Herbarium’. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143: 225–232.Google Scholar
- Mayers, J. 2005. The Four Rs. Power Tools Series. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
- Pattanaik, C., C.S. Reddy, N.K. Dhal, and R. Das. 2008. Utilization of mangrove forests in Bhitarkanika wildlife sanctuary, Orissa. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 7: 598–603.Google Scholar
- Pearce, D., and D. Moran. 1994. The Economic value of Biodiversity. London: International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).Google Scholar
- Redman, C.L. 1999. Human impact on ancient environments. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
- Satyanarayana, B., N. Koedam, K. De Smet, D. Di Nitto, M. Bauwens, L.P. Jayatissa, S. Cannicci, and F. Dahdouh-Guebas. 2011. Long-term mangrove forest development in Sri Lanka: early predictions evaluated against outcomes using VHR remote sensing and VHR ground-truth data. Marine Ecology Progress Series 443: 51–63.Google Scholar
- Shirley, M.H. 2008. Establishing a baseline for the repopulation of the African dwarf crocodile and slender snouted crocodile at the western limit, The Gambia. Crocodile Specialist Group (CSG) Newsletter 27: 20–21.Google Scholar
- Sillah, J. 2002. Environmental Action Plan: Mangroves, Gallery forests and the Related Environment, The Gambia. Banjul: Ministry of Forestry and the Environment.Google Scholar
- Spalding, M., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins. 2010. World Atlas of Mangroves. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Sukardjo, S. 1995. Integrated coastal fisheries management: Study of the mangrove ecology in the estuarine area of The Gambia. Field document 6 (FI-DP/INT/91/007). Italy: FAO.Google Scholar
- The Republic of The Gambia, 1996. The Gambia Incorporated “Vision 2020” Blue Print. http://www.statehouse.gm/vision2020/foreward.htm. Accessed 15 November 2010.
- Tomlinson, P.B. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2002. Impact of sea level rise in Banjul, Gambia. In UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/impact_of_sea_level_rise_in_banjul_gambia. Accessed 20 October 2010.
- Vandaele, M., and D. Vande Wynckel. 2011. Implementation of a sustainable project in the Tanbi Wetland National Park, Banjul (The Gambia). MSc Thesis. Industrial Sciences, Katholieke Hogeschool Brugge-Oostende.Google Scholar
- Watts, S. 1996. Essential environmental science: Methods and Techniques. London: Routledge.Google Scholar