Payments for Environmental Services in Latin America as a Tool for Restoration and Rural Development
- 469 Downloads
Payments for Environmental Services (PES) can encourage projects that enhance restoration, production, and rural development. When projects promote differentiated systems by paying farmers for the provision of services, the application of PES requires evaluation of the environmental services provided by each system. We present evaluations of carbon stocks and biodiversity in pure and mixed native tree plantations in Costa Rica. To illustrate how monetary values can be assigned, we discuss a project that awarded PES to silvopastoral systems in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Colombia based on carbon stocks and biodiversity. PES can promote positive environmental attitudes in farmers. Currently this project is being scaled up in Colombia based on their positive experiences with PES as a tool to promote adoption. Compared to PES systems that include only one environmental service, systems that incorporate bundling or layering of multiple services can make sustainable land uses more attractive to farmers and reduce perverse incentives.
KeywordsAdoptability Biodiversity Bundled PES Carbon Degraded land Layering
- Agência Nacional de Águas. 2010. Programa Produtor de Água. http://www.ana.gov.br/produagua/ (in Portuguese). Accessed 2 Nov 2010
- Calle, A. 2008. Using PES and technical assistance to promote silvopastoral systems in Quindío, Colombia: Attitude change as a key to permanent adoption. MS Thesis, Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven.Google Scholar
- Calle, A., F. Montagnini, and A.F. Zuluaga. 2009. Farmer’s perceptions of silvopastoral system promotion in Quindío, Colombia. Bois et Forets des Tropiques 300(2): 79–94.Google Scholar
- Campos, J.J., F. Alpízar, B. Louman, and J. Parrotta. 2005. An integrated approach to forest ecosystem services. In Forest in the global balance—changing paradigms. IUFRO World Series vol. 17, ed. G. Mery, R. Alfaro, M. Kaninnen, and M. Lobovikov, 97–116. Helsinki: IUFRO.Google Scholar
- Chambers, R., and M. Leach. 1990. Trees as savings and security for the rural poor. Unasylva 41: 39–52.Google Scholar
- CIFOR (Center for International Forestry Research). 2005. Payments for environmental services: some nuts and bolts. CIFOR Infobrief No.9. www.cgiar.org. Accessed 31 Oct 2010.
- Cuenca Capa, P.R. 2009. Evaluation of productivity in volume and potential for carbon fixation by mixed plantations in the Caribbean region of Costa Rica. MS Thesis, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- ESPH—Empresa de Servicios Públicos de Heredia. 2008. Environmental commitment. www.esph-sa.com (in Spanish). Accessed 31 Oct 2010.
- FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
- FONAFIFO. 2008. Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal. Environmental Services—processes and requirements for PES. www.fonafifo.com/paginas_espanol/servicios_ambientales/sa_requisitos.htm (in Spanish). Accessed 30 Oct 2010.
- FUNDECOR. No Date. FUNDECOR and market based conservation in Costa Rica: a global innovative approach. www.fundecor.org. Accessed 30 Oct 2010.
- Ibrahim, M., M. Chacón, C. Cuartas, J. Naranjo, G. Ponce, P. Vega, F. Casasola, and J. Rojas. 2007. Carbon storage in soil and biomass in land use systems of ranchlands of Colombia, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Agroforestería en las Américas 4: 27–36. (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- Ibrahim, M., F. Casasola, C. Villanueva, E. Murgueitio, E. Ramírez, J. Sáenz, and C. Sepúlveda. 2010. Payment for environmental services as a tool to encourage the adoption of silvo-pastoral systems and restoration of agricultural landscapes dominated by cattle in Latin America. In Restoring Degraded Landscapes with Native Species in Latin America, ed. F. Montagnini, and C. Finney. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- IPGSCC. 2009. Anchorage declaration of the Indigenous Peoples’ global summit on climate change, April 24, 2009. www.indigenoussummit.com/servlet/content/declaration.html. Accessed 30 Oct 2010.
- Madrigal Ballestero, R., and F. Alpízar Rodríguez. 2008. The design and adaptive management of a payment for environmental services system in Copán Ruinas, Honduras. Investigación Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 17(1): 79–90 (in Spanish).Google Scholar
- Magellan, T.M., F. Montagnini, and J. Montero. 2010. Diversity of Lepidoptera in pure and mixed plantations of eight native tree species at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. In Restoring Degraded Landscapes with Native Species in Latin America, ed. F. Montagnini, and C. Finney. New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
- Mejías Esquivel, R., and O. Segura Bonilla. 2002. Payment for environmental services in Central America. World Resources Institute White paper, 94 pp. www.bvsde.paho.org/bvsacd/CD11/olmrona.pdf (in Spanish). Accessed 30 Oct 2010.
- Montagnini, F., and R. Mendelsohn. 1997. Managing forest fallows: improving the economics of swidden agriculture. AMBIO 26(2): 118–123.Google Scholar
- Montagnini, F., E. González, C. Porras, and R. Rheingans. 1995. Mixed and pure forest plantations in the humid neotropics: a comparison of early growth, pest damage and establishment costs. Commonwealth Forestry Review 74(4): 306–314.Google Scholar
- Pagiola, S., J. Bishop, and N. Landell-Mills (eds.). 2002. Selling Forest Environmental Services. Market-Based Mechanisms for Conservation and Development. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Point Carbon. 2009. Point Carbon EUA OTC assessment 29 July 2009. www.pointcarbon.com. Accessed 29 July 2009
- Porras, I., M. Grieg-Gran, and M. Neves. 2008. All that glitters. A review of payments for watershed services in developing countries, 138. London: International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED).Google Scholar
- U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO). 2009. Voluntary carbon offset market may compromise ‘environmental integrity’ of mandatory programs to limit emissions. http://engineers.ihs.com/news/climate-change/2009/gao-carbon-offset-emissions-032309.htm. Accessed 30 Oct 2010.
- Wadsworth, F.H. 1997. Forest Production for Tropical America. Agriculture Handbook 710. Washington: United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service.Google Scholar
- World Bank. 2010. Mainstreaming sustainable cattle ranching. http//web.worldbank.org/external/projectsmain?Projectid=P104687&theSitePK=40941&piPK=64290415&pagePK=64283627&menuPK=64282134&Type=Overview. Accessed 1 Nov 2010.
- Wuenscher, T., S. Engel, and S. Wunder. 2006. Payments for environmental services in Costa Rica: increasing efficiency through spatial differentiation. Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture 45: 319–337.Google Scholar
- Wunder, S., S. Engel, and S. Pagiola. 2008. Taking stock: a comparative analysis of payments for environmental services programs in developed and developing countries. Ecological Economics 65: 832–854.Google Scholar