Advertisement

AMBIO

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 26–42 | Cite as

Increased Bioavailability of Mercury in the Lagoons of Lomé, Togo: The Possible Role of Dredging

  • Kissao Gnandi
  • Seunghee Han
  • M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon
  • Magali Porrachia
  • Dimitri D. Deheyn
Report

Abstract

Surface sediments of the lagoons of Lomé, Togo, were analyzed for mercury, methylmercury, and trace elements. Concentrations were greater than typical for natural lagoon sediments, and with greater variability within the Eastern lagoon compared to the Western one. The Eastern lagoon is larger and has been dredged in the past, while the Western lagoon, which also receives major waste inputs, has not been dredged and shows less tidal flushing. Accordingly, one naturally believes that the Eastern lagoon is cleaner and probably safe to use due to its natural resources, including fishes to eat. Unexpectedly, we describe here that mercury methylation was greater in the Eastern lagoon, indicating increased bioavailability of mercury, as probably facilitated by past dredging that decreased solid-phase retention of inorganic mercury. Urbanization has historically been more developed in the southern part of the lagoons, which is still reflected in contamination levels of sediment despite dredging, probably because sources of contamination are still more important there today. Such urban contamination emphasizes the need to regulate waste discharges and possible airborne contamination in growing cities of developing countries, and implements environmental and public health monitoring, especially in relation to misbelieves systematically associated with the cleansing effect of dredging activity.

Keywords

Metal contamination Enrichment factor Geoaccumulation index Urban pollution Organic chelation Lagoon sediments 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the Fulbright Foundation for financing the research visit of K. Gnandi to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO, USA) and for providing additional funds to finance costs of the research analysis (to DDD). The Drs Latz-Deheyn laboratory has provided logistic support for sample preparation, analysis, and data processing. Research also partially supported by funds from the UCSD-SIOSED program (to DDD).

References

  1. Acevedo-Figueroa, D., B.D. Jimenez, and C.J. Rodriguez-Sierra. 2006. Trace metals in sediments of two estuarine lagoons from Puerto Rico. Environmental Pollution 141: 336–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berto, D., M. Giani, S. Covelli, R. Bosc, M. Cornello, S. Macchia, and M. Massironi. 2006. Mercury in sediments and Nassarius reticulatus (Gastropoda Prosobranchia) in the southern Venice Lagoon. Science of the Total Environment 368: 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bloom, N.S., and B.K. Lasorsa. 1999. Changes in mercury speciation and the release of methyl mercury as a result of marine sediment dredging activities. Science of the Total Environment 238: 379–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bockemühl, J., and A. Triemer. 1974. Ecology and epidemiology of Vibrio parahaemolyticus on the coast of Togo. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 51: 353–360.Google Scholar
  5. Boening, D.W. 2000. Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: A general review. Chemosphere 40: 1335–1351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boyes, W.K. 2010. Essentiality, toxicity, and uncertainty in the risk assessment of Manganese. Journal of Toxicology And Environmental Health-Part A-Current Issues 73: 159–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butcher, D.J. 2002. Speciation of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl and its derivatives: A review. Applied Spectroscopy Reviews 37: 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calamari, D., and H. Naeve. 1994. Review of pollution in the African aquatic environment. Rome: Food and Agriculture Administration.Google Scholar
  9. Canario, J., C. Vale, M. Caetano, and M.J. Madureira. 2003. Mercury in contaminated sediments and pore waters enriched in sulphate (Tagus Estuary, Portugal). Environmental Pollution 126: 425–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chadwick, D.B., and J.L. Largier. 1999. The influence of tidal range on the exchange between San Diego Bay and the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 104: 29885–29899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chadwick, D.B., A. Ziniro, H.S. Richardson, C.N. Katz, and A.C. Blake. 2004. Modeling the mass balance and fate of copper in San Diego Bay. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 355–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Choe, K.Y., G.A. Gill, R.D. Lehman, S. Han, W.A. Heim, and K.H. Coale. 2004. Sediment-water exchange of total mercury and monomethyl mercury in the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Limnology and Oceanography 49: 1512–1527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clemente, R., A. Escolar, and M.P. Bernal. 2006. Heavy metals fractionation and organic matter mineralisation in contaminated calcareous soil amended with organic materials. Bioresource Technology 97: 1894–1901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Conaway, C.H., S. Squire, R.P. Mason, and A.R. Flegal. 2003. Mercury speciation in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Marine Chemistry 80: 199–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooper, D.C., and J.W. Morse. 1998. Biogeochemical controls on trace metal cycling in anoxic marine sediments. Environmental Science and Technology 32: 327–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Covelli, S., and G. Fontolan. 1997. Application of a normalization procedure in determining regional geochemical baselines. Environmental Geology 30: 34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dame, R.F., and D.M. Allen. 1996. Between estuaries and the sea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 200: 169–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Deheyn, D.D., and M.I. Latz. 2006. Bioavailability of metals along a contamination gradient in San Diego Bay (California, USA). Chemosphere 63: 818–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durn, G. 1996. The origin, composition and genesis of Istrian Terra Rossa soils (in Croatian). Zagreb, University of Zagreb. Ph.D., 204 p.Google Scholar
  20. El Nemr, A.M., A. El Sikaily, and A. Khaled. 2007. Total and leachable heavy metals in muddy and sandy sediments of Egyptian coast along Mediterranean Sea. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 129: 151–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Faganeli, J., M. Horvat, S. Covelli, V. Fajon, M. Logar, L. Lipej, and B. Cermelj. 2003. Mercury and methylmercury in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic sea). Science of the Total Environment 304: 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fang, G.C., Y.S. Wu, W.J. Lee, T.Y. Chou, and I.C. Lin. 2007. Ambient air particulates, metallic elements, dry deposition and concentrations at Taichung Airport, Taiwan. Atmospheric Research 84: 280–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fang, G.C., Y.L. Huang, and J.H. Huang. 2010. Study of atmospheric metallic elements pollution in Asia during 2000–2007. Journal of Hazardous Materials 180: 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feng, H., X. Han, W. Zhang, and L. Yu. 2004. A preliminary study of heavy metal contamination in Yangtze River intertidal zone due to urbanization. Marine Pollution Bulletin 49: 910–915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fetter, C.W. 2009. Contaminant hydrogeology. Long Grove: Waveland Press.Google Scholar
  26. Fitzgerald, W.F., C.H. Lamborg, and C.R. Hammerschmidt. 2007. Marine biogeochemical cycling of mercury. Chemical Reviews 107: 641–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Folsom, a., R.V. Luepker, D.R. Jacobs, R.F. Gillum, H.L. Taylor, I. Frantz, P. Hannan, and H. Blackburn. 1982. Recent decline in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Arteriosclerosis 2: A418–A418.Google Scholar
  28. Förstner, U., and G.T.W. Wittmann. 1981. Metal pollution in the aquatic environment, 2nd ed. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Gaudette, H.E., and W.R. Flight. 1974. An inexpensive titration method of organic carbon in recent sediments. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology 44: 249–253.Google Scholar
  30. GESAMP, R. 1982. Monitoring biological variables related to marine pollution. Washington, DC: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  31. Gnandi, K., and H.J. Tobschall. 1999. The pollution of marine sediments by trace elements in the coastal region of Togo caused by dumping of cadmium-rich phosphorite tailing into the sea. Environmental Geology 38: 13–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gnandi, K., F. Tomety-Messan, Y. Ameyapoh, and P. Edorh. 2007. Distribution, bioavailability and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the lagoon system of Lomé (in French). Journal de la Recherche Scientifique de L’Université de Lomé (Togo) A: 67–81.Google Scholar
  33. Gnandi, K., M.H. Rezaie Boroon, and D.D. Deheyn. 2009. Distribution, speciation, and extractability of cadmium in the sedimentary phosphorite of Hahotoé-Kpogamé (Southern Togo). Aquatic Geochemistry 1–11. doi: 10.1007/s10498-009-9062-7.
  34. Gobeil, C., R.W. Macdonald, and J.N. Smith. 1999. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Arctic Ocean basins. Environmental Science and Technology 33: 4194–4198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guerra, R., A. Pasteris, and M. Ponti. 2009. Impacts of maintenance channel dredging in a northern Adriatic coastal lagoon. I: Effects on sediment properties, contamination and toxicity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 85: 134–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Guira, D. 1992. Physical instability: factor of organization and structuration of a shallow brackish tropical ecosystem—the Ebrié lagoon. Vie Milieu 42: 73–92.Google Scholar
  37. Hammerschmidt, C.R., and W.F. Fitzgerald. 2004. Geochemical controls on the production and distribution of methylmercury in near-shore marine sediments. Environmental Science and Technology 38: 1487–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hammerschmidt, C.R., and W.F. Fitzgerald. 2006. Methylmercury cycling in sediments on the continental shelf of southern New England. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70: 918–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han, S.H., G.A. Gill, R.D. Lehman, and K.Y. Choe. 2006. Complexation of mercury by dissolved organic matter in surface waters of Galveston Bay, Texas. Marine Chemistry 98: 156–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Han, S., A. Obraztsova, P. Pretto, K.Y. Choe, J. Gieskes, D.D. Deheyn, and B.M. Tebo. 2007. Biogeochemical factors affecting mercury methylation in sediments of the Venice Lagoon, Italy. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26: 655–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaiser, J. 2003. Manganese: A high-octane dispute. Science 300: 926–928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kannan, K., and J. Falandysz. 1998. Speciation and concentrations of mercury in certain coastal marine sediments. Water, Air, and Soil pollution 103: 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Khaled, a., A. El Nemr, and A. El Sikaily. 2006. An assessment of heavy-metal contamination in surface sediments of the Suez Gulf using geoaccumulation indexes and statistical analysis. Chemistry and Ecology 22: 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. King, J.K., F.M. Saunders, R.F. Lee, and R.A. Jahnke. 1999. Coupling mercury methylation rates to sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18: 1362–1369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kudo, A., Y. Fujikawa, S. Miyahara, J. Zheng, H. Takigami, M. Sugahara, and T. Muramatsu. 1998. Lessons from Minamata mercury pollution, Japan—after a continuous 22 years of observation. Water Science and Technology 38: 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lee, C.R., B.L. Folsom, and R.M. Engler. 1982. Availability and plant uptake of heavy metals from contaminated dredge material placed in flooded and upland disposal environments. Environment International 7: 65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lemly, A.D., and C.J. Richardson. 1997. Guidelines for risk assessment in wetlands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 47: 117–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leopold, E.N., M.C. Jung, O. Auguste, N. Ngatcha, E. Georges, and M. Lape. 2008. Metals pollution in freshly deposited sediments from river Mingoa, main tributary to the Municipal lake of Yaounde, Cameroon. Geosciences Journal 12: 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lewis, M.A., D.E. Weber, R.S. Stanley, and J.C. Moore. 2001. Dredging impact on an urbanized Florida bayou: Effects on benthos and algal-periphyton. Environmental Pollution 115: 161–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Li, Y.H. 1981. Geochemical cycles of elements and human perturbation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 45: 2073–2084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Liu, J.R., K.T. Valsaraj, I. Devai, and R.D. DeLaune. 2008. Immobilization of aqueous Hg(II) by mackinawite (FeS). Journal of Hazardous Materials 157: 432–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mason, R.P., W.F. Fitzgerald, and F.M.M. Morel. 1994. The biogeochemical cycling of elemental mercury—anthropogenic influences. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58: 3191–3198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mikac, N., S. Niessen, B. Ouddane, and M. Wartel. 1999. Speciation of mercury in sediments of the Seine estuary (France). Applied Organometallic Chemistry 13: 715–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Morel, F.M.M., A.M.L. Kraepiel, and M. Amyot. 1998. The chemical cycle and bioaccumulation of mercury. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 543–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Müller, G. 1981. Die Schwermetallbelastung der sedimente des Neckars und seiner nebenflusse: eine bestandsaufnahme (The heavy metal pollution of the sediments of Neckars and its tributary: A stocktaking). Chemical Zeitung 105: 157–164.Google Scholar
  56. Mzoughi, N., T. Stoichev, M. Dachraoui, A. El Abed, D. Amouroux, and O.F.X. Donard. 2002. Inorganic mercury and methylmercury in surface sediments and mussel tissues from a microtidal lagoon (Bizerte, Tunisia). Journal of Coastal Conservation 8: 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Niessen, S., D. Foucher, O. Clarisse, J.C. Fischer, N. Mikac, Z. Kwokal, V. Fajon, and M. Horvat. 2003. Influence of sulphur cycle on mercury methylation in estuarine sediment (Seine estuary, France). Journal De Physique IV 107: 953–956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nilsson, L. 2002. Trading relations: is the roadmap from Lomé to Cotonou correct? Applied Economics 34: 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. PerkinElmer, I. 2000. Guide to atomic spectroscopy: Techniques and applications, 40. Norwalk: PerkinElmer.Google Scholar
  60. Preda, M., and M.E. Cox. 2002. Trace metal occurrence and distribution in sediments and mangroves, Pumicestone region, southeast Queensland, Australia. Environment International 28: 433–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ray, G.C. 1996. Coastal-marine discontinuities and synergisms: Implications for biodiversity conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1095–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rickard, D., and J.W. Morse. 2005. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Marine Chemistry 97: 141–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Salomons, W., and U. Forstner. 1984. Metals in the hydrocycle. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  64. Salomons, W., N.M. Derooij, H. Kerdijk, and J. Bril. 1987. Sediments as a source for contaminants. Hydrobiologia 149: 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. SGI, I. 2003. SGI Engineering group, Hydro R&D & SOTED Africa. Studies on the cleaning of the city of Lomé and on the supply of drinking water for 20 semi-urbanized centers. Phase A: Collection of raw data. Vol. 1: final Report. (in French). 285 p.Google Scholar
  66. Sherwood, L.B. 2005. Environmental geochemistry: Treatise on geochemistry. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  67. Skyllberg, U., P.R. Bloom, J. Qian, C.M. Lin, and W.F. Bleam. 2006. Complexation of mercury(II) in soil organic matter: EXAFS evidence for linear two-coordination with reduced sulfur groups. Environmental Science and Technology 40: 4174–4180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sunderland, E.M., D.P. Krabbenhoft, J.W. Moreau, S.A. Strode, and W.M. Landing. 2009. Mercury sources, distribution, and bioavailability in the North Pacific Ocean: Insights from data and models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23: 1–14. doi: 10.1029/2008GB003425.Google Scholar
  69. Sunderland, E.M., F.A.P.C. Gobas, B.A. Branfireun, and A. Heyes. 2006. Environmental controls on the speciation and distribution of mercury in coastal sediments. Marine Chemistry 102: 111–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tam, N.F.Y., and M.W.Y. Yao. 1998. Normalisation and heavy metal contamination in mangrove sediments. Science of the Total Environment 216: 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tiefenthaler, L.L., E.D. Stein, and K.C. Schiff. 2008. Watershed and land use-based sources of trace metals in urban storm water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27: 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tomiyasu, T., A. Matsuyama, T. Eguchi, Y. Fuchigami, K. Oki, M. Horvat, R. Rajar, and H. Akagi. 2006. Spatial variations of mercury in sediment of Minamata Bay, Japan. Science of the Total Environment 368: 283–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Turekian, K.K., and K.H. Wedepohl. 1961. Distribution of the elements in some major units of the Earth’s crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin 72: 175–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wedepohl, K.H. 1991. The composition of the Upper Earth’s crust and the natural cycles of selected metals. In Metals and their compound in the environment: occurence, analysis and biological relevance, ed. E. Merian, 1–10. Deerfield Beach: Verlag Chemie.Google Scholar
  75. Winder, B.S., A.G. Salmon, and M.A. Marty. 2010. Inhalation of an essential metal: Development of reference exposure levels for manganese. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 57: 195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kissao Gnandi
    • 1
    • 5
  • Seunghee Han
    • 2
    • 4
  • M. Hassan Rezaie-Boroon
    • 3
  • Magali Porrachia
    • 2
  • Dimitri D. Deheyn
    • 2
  1. 1.Geology DepartmentUniversity of LoméLoméTogo
  2. 2.Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Geological Sciences DepartmentCalifornia State University Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringGwangju Institute of Science and TechnologyGwangjuRepublic of Korea
  5. 5.Environmental Geochemistry and Hydrogeology Department, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of LoméLoméTogo

Personalised recommendations