AMBIO

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 305–313 | Cite as

The Links Between Resource Dependency and Attitude of Commercial Fishers to Coral Reef Conservation in the Red Sea

  • Nadine A. Marshall
  • Paul A. Marshall
  • Ameer Abdulla
  • Tony Rouphael
Report

Abstract

The imperative to further constrain extractive uses of natural resources will strengthen as resources degrade through over-use or exposure to climate changes. Here, we explore an approach to increase the support for marine conservation among coral reef fishers. We explore the proposition that resource dependency in the Egyptian Red Sea can act as a barrier to conservation. We administered face-to-face surveys to 49% of the fishing industry to: (i) identify the level of compliance to the local marine protected area (MPA), (ii) assess the level of dependency on marine resources in the region and (iii) examine the relationship between resource dependency and conservation attitudes. Only 11.4% of fishers were aware of the MPA. Fishers were mostly limited in their social flexibility and livelihood options. Results suggest that resource dependency is highly and negatively correlated with conservation attitudes suggesting that management efforts need to seriously focus on reducing dependency if conservation goals are to be met.

Keywords

Human dimensions Social resilience Attitudes Resource dependency Compliance Marine protected areas 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding for this project was gratefully received from the IUCN Global Marine Programme. The authors are sincerely appreciative of the dedicated field efforts of Salwa El Halawany and to the 44 commercial fishers who generously gave their time. Our sincere thanks are also extended to John Grainger, Sherif Baha el Din, Mr. Amgad Ali El Shaffai, Mr. Mohamed Negm, Mr. Mohamed Bissard and other rangers from the Red Sea Protectorate and Dr. Moustafa Fouda. We are especially indebted to Alistair Hobday, Sean Pascoe, Mark Howden and Marcus Lane who provided comments on earlier versions of the manuscript.

References

  1. Abd El-Ghani, M.M., and K.N. Abdel-Khalik. 2006. Floristic diversity and phytogeography of the Gebel Elba National Park, South-East Egypt. Turkish Journal of Botany 30: 121–136.Google Scholar
  2. Adger, W.N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: Are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24: 347–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allison, H.E., and R.J. Hobbs. 2004. Resilience, adaptive capacity, and the “lock-in trap” of the Western Australian Agricultural Region. Ecology and Society 9 (online).Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous. 2002. Egyptian Italian Environmental Cooperation Program—Phase II. Gabal Elba Project Document. October 2002. http://www.eiecop.org/pdf/ELBA.pdf.
  5. Badalamenti, F., A.A. Ramos, E. Voultsiadou, L. Sanchez, G. D’Anna, C. Pipitone, J. Mas, J.A. Ruiz Fernandez, D. Whitmarsh, and S. Riggio. 2000. Cultural and socio-economic impacts of mediterranean marine protected areas. Environmental Conservation 27: 110–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, C. 1997. Lessons from Indonesia’s 1980 Trawler Ban. Marine Policy 21: 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bailey, C., and C. Pomeroy. 1996. Resource dependency and development options in coastal Southeast Asia. Society and Natural Resources 9: 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ban, N.C., G.J.A. Hansen, M. Jones, and A.C.J. Vincent. 2009. Systematic marine conservation planning in data-poor regions: Socioeconomic data is essential. Marine Policy 33: 794–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benzoni, F., J.S. Ashworth, A.M. Addamo, F. Stefani, A. Mabrouk, and P. Galli. 2006. Artisanal fisheries and no-take zones in Nabq, Egypt: Effects on molluscs and reef top benthic assemblages. In Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reefs Symposium, Okinawa, Japan, 1362–1367.Google Scholar
  10. Capitani, C., B. Tissot, et al. 2004. Competing perspectives in resource protection: The case of marine protected areas in West Hawaii. Society and Natural Resources 17: 763–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheung, W.W.L., V.W.Y. Lam, J.L. Sarmiento, K. Kearney, R. Watson, and D. Pauly. 2009. Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish Fisheries. doi:  10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00315.x.
  12. Christie, P., et al. 2003. Toward developing a complete understanding: A social science research agenda for marine protected areas. Fisheries 28: 12.Google Scholar
  13. Cinner, J.M. 2007. Designing marine reserves to reflect local socioeconomic conditions: Lessons from long-enduring customary management systems. Coral Reefs 26: 1035–1045.Google Scholar
  14. Cinner, J., T. McClanahan, T.M. Daw, N.A.J. Graham, J. Maina, S.K. Wilson, and T.P. Hughes. 2009. Linking social and ecological systems to sustain coral reef fisheries. Current Biology 19: 206–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cinner, J.E., and R.B. Pollnac. 2004. Poverty, perceptions and planning: Why socioeconomics matter in the management of Mexican reefs. Ocean and Coastal Management 47: 470–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crean, K. 1999. Centralised and community-based fisheries management strategies: Case studies from two fisheries dependent archipelagos. Marine Policy 23: 243–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DeVantier, L., E. Turak, K. Al-Shaikh, and G. De’ath. 2000. Coral communities of the central-northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Fauna of Arabia 18: 25–66.Google Scholar
  18. Fisher, D.R. 2001. Resource dependency and rural poverty: Rural areas in the United States and Japan. Rural Sociology 66: 181–202.Google Scholar
  19. Force, J.E., G.E. Machlis, C. Zhang, and A. Kearney. 1993. The relationship between timber production, local historical events, and community social change: A quantitative case study. Forest Science 39: 722–742.Google Scholar
  20. Galal, N., R.F.G. Ormond, and O. Hassan. 2002. Effect of a network of no-take reserves in increasing catch per unit effort and stocks of exploited reef fish at Nabq, South Sinai, Egypt. Marine & Freshwater Research 53: 199–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hanafy, M.H., M. Gheny, B.A. Rouphael, A. Salam, and M. Fouda. 2006. The Dugong, Dugong dugon, in Egyptian waters: Distribution, relative abundance and threats. Zoology in the Middle East 39: 17–24.Google Scholar
  22. Hardin, G. 1968. The tragedy of the commons. Science 162: 1243–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Head, S.M. 1987. Corals and coral reefs of the Red Sea. In Red Sea, A.J. Edwards and S.M. Head, eds, 128–151. Pergamon: Oxford.Google Scholar
  24. Humphrey, C.R. 1995. Introduction: Natural resource-dependent communities and persistent rural poverty in the U.S. Part IV. Society and Natural Resources 8: 93–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. IUCN. 2007. Elba protected area: Marine biological survey and coastal sensitivity mapping. USAID Ed.Google Scholar
  26. IUCN-WCPA. 2008. Establishing marine protected area networks—Making it happen. IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas. IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Nature Conservancy.Google Scholar
  27. Jackson, J.B., M. Kirby, W.H. Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Botsford, B.J. Bourque, R.H. Bradbuyr, R. Cooke, J. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, T.P. Hughes, S. Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S. Lenihan, J.M. Pandolfi, C.H. Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner, and R.R. Warner. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacob, S.J., F.L. Farmer, M. Jepson, and C. Adams. 2001. Landing a definition of fishing dependent communities. Fisheries 26: 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kareiva, P. 2006. Conservation biology: Beyond marine protected areas. Current Biology 16: R533–R535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kemel, S.A. 1998. The present status of artisanal fisheries on the Egyptian Red Sea. In Egyptian Red Sea coastal and marine resources management project, ed. G. F. Project.Google Scholar
  31. Kotb, M.A., M.H. Hanafy, H. Rirache, S. Matsumura, A.A. Al-Sofyani, A.G. Ahmed, G. Bawazir, F.A. Al-Horani. 2008. In Status of coral reefs of the world: 2008, ed. C. Wilkinson. Townsville, Australia: Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre.Google Scholar
  32. Lackey, R.T. 1998. Fisheries management: Integrating societal preference, decision, analysis, and ecological risk assessment. Environmental Science and Policy 1: 329–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marshall, N.A. 2007. Can policy perception influence social resilience to policy change? Fisheries Research 86: 216–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marshall, N.A. 2008. A conceptual and operational understanding of social resilience. Insights for optimising social and environmental outcomes in the management of Queensland’s commercial fishing industry. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag.Google Scholar
  35. Marshall, N.A. 2010. Understanding social resilience to climate variability in primary enterprises and industries. Global Environment Change 20(1): 36–43.Google Scholar
  36. Marshall, N.A., D.M. Fenton, P.A. Marshall, and S. Sutton. 2007. How resource-dependency can influence social resilience within a primary resource industry. Rural Sociology 72: 359–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Marshall, N.A., P.A. Marshall, and A. Abdulla. 2009a. Using social resilience and resource dependency to increase the effectiveness of a prospective Marine Protected Area MPA in Salum, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 52: 99.Google Scholar
  38. Marshall, N.A., P.A. Marshall, J. Tamelander, D. Obura, D. Malleret-King, and J.M. Cinner. 2009b. Sustaining tropical coastal communities & industries: A framework for social adaptation to climate change, Gland, Switzerland.Google Scholar
  39. Mascia, M.B. 2003. The human dimension of coral reef marine protected areas: Recent social science research and its policy implications. Conservation Biology 17: 630–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McClanahan, T., J.M. Cinner, J. Maiana, N.A.J. Graham, T.M. Daw, and S.M. Stead, et al. 2008. Conservation action in a changing climate. Conservation Letters 1: 53–59.Google Scholar
  41. McClanahan, T., J. Abunge, J.M. Cinner, A.T. Kamukuru, and J. Ndagala. 2009. Management preferences, perceived benefits, and conflicts among resource users and managers in the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation 35: 340–350.Google Scholar
  42. NCS. 2006. Protected areas of Egypt: Towards the future. Report prepared by the Nature Conservation Sector Ed.Google Scholar
  43. Pauly, D., J. Alder, E. Bennett, V. Christensen, P. Tyedmers, and R.T. Watson. 2003. The future for fisheries. Science 302: 1359–1361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pearson, M.P., and A.I. Shehata. 1998. Protectorates management for conservation and development in the Arab Republic of Egypt. Parks 8: 29–35.Google Scholar
  45. Pollnac, R., P. Christie, et al. 2010. Marine reserves as linked social–ecological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(8) (online).Google Scholar
  46. Pomeroy, R.S., J.E. Parks, and L.M. Watson. 2004. How is your MPA doing? A guidebook of natural and social indicators for evaluating marine protected area management effectiveness. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge: IUCN.Google Scholar
  47. Riegl, B., and W.E. Piller. 2000. Mapping of benthic habitats in northern Safaga Bay Red Sea, Egypt: A tool for proactive management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10: 127–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sheppard, C.R.C., and A.L.S. Sheppard. 1991. Corals and coral communities of Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia. Vol. 12. National Commission for Wildlife Conservation and Development.Google Scholar
  49. Sheppard, C., A. Price, and C. Roberts. 1992. Marine ecology of the Arabian region—Patterns and processes in extreme tropical environments. England: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  50. Sutinen, J.G., and K. Kuperan. 1999. A socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance. International Journal of Social Economics 26: 174-193.Google Scholar
  51. Talbot, F., and C. Wilkinson. 2001. Coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses: A sourcebook for managers. Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science.Google Scholar
  52. Tesfamichael, D., and T.J. Pitcher. 2006. Multidisciplinary evaluation of the sustainability of Red Sea fisheries using Rapfish. Fisheries Research 78: 227–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Turak, E., J. Brodie, and L. DeVantier. 2003. Reef-building corals and coral communities of the Yemen Red Sea. Fauna of Arabia 23: 1–40.Google Scholar
  54. Underwood, A.J. 1997. Experiments in ecology their logical design and interpretation using analysis of variance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Wilkinson, C.R. 1999. Global and local threats to coral reef functioning and existence: Review and predictions. Marine & Freshwater Research 50: 867–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilkinson, C. 2008. Staus of coral reefs of the world. Australia: Australian Institute of Marine Science.Google Scholar
  57. Wingard, J.D. 2000. Community transferable quotas: Internalizing externalities and minimizing social impacts of fisheries management. Human Organization 59: 48-57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadine A. Marshall
    • 1
  • Paul A. Marshall
    • 2
    • 4
  • Ameer Abdulla
    • 3
  • Tony Rouphael
    • 4
  1. 1.CSIRO, Sustainable Ecosystems and Climate Adaptation FlagshipTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Great Barrier Reef Marine Park AuthorityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.IUCN Marine Biodiversity and Conservation ScienceMalagaSpain
  4. 4.IUCN Marine Biodiversity and Conservation SciencePerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations