Process Based Modelling of Phosphorus Losses from Arable Land
- 216 Downloads
Improved understanding of temporal and spatial Phosphorus (P) discharge variations is needed for improved modelling and prioritisation of abatement strategies that take into account local conditions . This study is aimed at developing modelling of agricultural Phosphorus losses with improved spatial and temporal resolution, and to compare the accuracy of a detailed process-based model with a rainfall-runoff coefficient-based model. The process-based SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was implemented for five river basins in central Sweden, and results compared with the rainfall-runoff coefficient-based model WATSHMAN (Watershed Management System) for one of these river basins. Parameter settings and attribute values were adapted to Scandinavian soil conditions, crops and management practices. Model performance regarding flow dynamics was overall satisfactory. Comparable results were achieved at several scales. The modelled P load was of high accuracy for the days when monitoring data were available for validation, generally once a month. Modelled monthly P load did not fit as well with averaged monthly monitoring load values, mainly since monthly monitoring often partly or entirely misses the peak flows. The comparison of SWAT and WATSHMAN gave slightly better results for the process-based model (SWAT). Better spatial resolution for input data such as Soil-P content and agricultural management practices will be required to reach modelling results that enable identification of measures adapted to local conditions.
KeywordsPhosphorus modelling Eutrophication Agricultural leaking SWAT
- Abbaspour, K.C. 2009. SWAT-CUP2 SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Programs. Version2. http://www.eawag.ch/organisation/abteilungen/siam/software/swat/downloads/Manual_SwatCup.pdf. Accessed 28 Apr 2009.
- Alavi, G. 1999. Climate, leaf area, soil moisture and tree growth in spruce stands in SW Sweden: Field experiments and modelling. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Agraria, 175 pp.Google Scholar
- Alström, K., and A. Bergman. 1990. Water erosion on arable land in southern Sweden. In Soil erosion on agricultural land, ed. J. Boardman, I.D.L. Foster, and J.A. Dearing, 107–117. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Andersson, L., J. Rosberg, C. Pers, J. Olsson, and B. Arheimer. 2005. Estimating catchment nutrient flow with the HBV-NP model: Sensitivity to input data. Ambio 34: 521–532.Google Scholar
- Bicknell, B., J. Imhoff, J. Kittle, T. Jobes, and A. Donigian. 2001. BASINS HSPF users manual. Reston, VA: Office of Information, Water Resources Discipline, US Geological Survey. http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/basins/bsnsdocs.html, 843 pp.
- Blombäck, K. 1998. Carbon and Nitrogen in Catch Crop Systems: Modelling of seasonal and long-term dynamics in plant and soil. Doctoral thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Agraria, 134 pp.Google Scholar
- Brandt, M., and H. Ehjed. 2002. Transport–Retention–Source Apportionment. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency report 5247 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Chow, V.T., D.R. Maidment, and L.W. Mays. 1988. Applied hydrology. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc.Google Scholar
- Djodjic, F., and L. Bergström. 2005b. Conditional Phosphorus Index as an educational tool for risk assessment and phosphorus management. Ambio 34: 296–300.Google Scholar
- EEA. 2001. Eutrophication in Europe’s coastal waters, Topic Report No 7, 86. Copenhagen, Denmark: European Environment Agency.Google Scholar
- Ekstrand, S. 2001. WATSHMAN, Watershed Management System: Modelling nutrient transport in river basins. IVL-report, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (www.ivl.se), 22 pp.
- Eriksson, J., Andersson, A., and Andersson, R. 1997. Current status of Swedish arable soils. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Report 4778.Google Scholar
- HELCOM. 2004. The Fourth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation. HELCOM—Helsinki Commission, Governing body for 1992 convention signed by all the countries bordering on the Baltic Sea and by the European Economic Community, 130 pp.Google Scholar
- Hill, A.R. 1981. Stream phosphorus exports from watersheds with contrasting land uses in Southern Ontario. Water Resources Bulletin 17: 627–634.Google Scholar
- Johansson, J.-Å., and H. Kvarnäs. 1998. Modelling of nutrients in Storsjön and its catchment Report for the County Board of Gävleborg. Report 1998: 13 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Johnsson, H., and K. Mårtensson. 2002. Nitrogen losses from Swedish arable land—calculation av normal leaching for 1995–1999. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Report 5248 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Johnsson, H., M. Larsson, A. Lindsjö, K. Mårtensson, K. Persson, and G. Torstensson. 2008. Leakage of nutrients from Swedish farmland. Report 5823, 106–152. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Lind, B.B., and L. Lundin. 1990. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of Scandinavian Tills. Nordic Hydrology 21: 107–118.Google Scholar
- McDowell, R.W., and R.M. Monaghan. 2002. The potential for phosphorus loss in relation to nitrogen fertilizer application and cultivation. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Sciences 45: 245–253.Google Scholar
- McKay, M.D. 1988. Sensitivity and uncertainty using a statistical sample of input values. In Uncertainty analysis, ed. Y. Ronen, 145–186. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press Inc.Google Scholar
- Neitsch, S.L., J.C. Arnold, J.R. Kiniry, J.R. Williams, and K.W. King. 2002. Soil and Water Assessment Tool Theoretical Documentation. Version 2000. College Station, Texas: Texas Water Resources Institute.Google Scholar
- Pers, B.C. 2002. Model description of BIOLA: A biogeochemical lake model. SMHI reports RH no. 17, 69. Norrköping, Sweden: Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.Google Scholar
- Persson, K. 2001. Measurement and modeling of phosphorus transport from arable land Ekohydrologi Report 58. Uppsala: Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.Google Scholar
- Pionke, H.B., W.J. Gburek, A.N. Sharpley, and J.A. Zollweg. 1997. Hydrologic and chemical controls of phosphorus loss from catchments. In Phosphorus loss to water from agriculture, ed. H. Tunney, O.T. Carton, P.C. Brookes, and A.E. Johnston, 225–242. Cambridge: CAB International Press.Google Scholar
- SCB (Statistics Sweden). 1997. Jordbruksstatistisk årsbok (Annual agricultural statistics), 244. Stockholm: Statistiska Centralbyrån (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Tonderski, K., B. Arheimer, and C. Pers. 2005. Modelling the impact of potential wetlands on phosphorus retention in a Swedish catchment. Ambio 34: 544–551.Google Scholar
- Ulén, B. 1997. Phosphorus losses from arable land. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency report 4731 (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Ulén, B., Johansson, G., and Kyllmar, K. 2000. Phosphorus leaching from eleven observation fields during 21 years, 15–22. Ekohydrologi Report 52, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Vandenberghe, V., A. van Grienseven, and W. Bauwens. 2001. Sensitivity analysis and calibration of the parameters of ESWAT: Application to the river Dender. Water Science and Technology 43(7): 295–301.Google Scholar
- Wiklert, P., S. Andersson, and B. Weidow. 1983. Studies of soil profiles in Swedish agricultural soils—a data synthesis. Department of soil sciences, Swedish university of agricultural sciences (in Swedish).Google Scholar
- Williams, J.R., C.A. Jones, and P.T. Dyke. 1984. A modelling approach to determining the relationship between erosion and soil productivity. Transactions of the ASAE 27: 129–144.Google Scholar
- Zakrisson, J., S. Ekstrand, and M. Olshammar. 2003. Phosphorus and Nitrogen modelling for catchments relating to the EU Water framework directive. IVL-report B-2003 report nr 1550 (in Swedish) www.ivl.se, 61 pp.