Passing the Panda Standard: A TAD Off the Mark?
- 256 Downloads
Tilapia, a tropical freshwater fish native to Africa, is an increasingly important global food commodity. The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF), a major environmental nongovernmental organization, has established stakeholder dialogues to formulate farm certification standards that promote “responsible” culture practices. As a preface to its “tilapia aquaculture dialogue,” the WWF for Nature commissioned a review of potential certification issues, later published as a peer-reviewed article. This article contends that both the review and the draft certification standards subsequently developed fail to adequately integrate critical factors governing the relative sustainability of tilapia production and thereby miss more significant issues related to resource-use efficiency and the appropriation of ecosystem space and services. This raises a distinct possibility that subsequent certification will promote intensive systems of tilapia production that are far less ecologically benign than existing widely practiced semi-intensive alternatives. Given the likely future significance of this emergent standard, it is contended that a more holistic approach to certification is essential.
KeywordsAquaculture Sustainability Eco-certification Standards Tilapia Environmental impacts
The authors would like to thank Professor Peter Edwards for the valuable insights he contributed during the development of this article.
- Abery, N., F. Sukadi, A.A. Budhiman, E.S. Kartamihardja, S. Koeshendrajana, B. Buddhiman, and S.S. De Silva. 2005. Fisheries and cage culture in three reservoirs in West Java, Indonesia; a case study of ambitious development and resulting interactions. Fisheries Management and Ecology 12: 315–330.Google Scholar
- Asian Development Bank (ADB). 2005. An Evaluation of Small-Scale Freshwater Rural Aquaculture Development for Poverty Reduction. ADB, Manila.Google Scholar
- Belton, B., D.C. Little, and K. Grady. 2009. Is responsible aquaculture sustainable aquaculture? WWF and the eco-certification of tilapia. Society and Natural Resources 22(9): 840–855.Google Scholar
- Beveridge, M., L. Ross, and L. Kelly. 1994. Aquaculture and biodiversity. AMBIO 23: 497–502.Google Scholar
- Boyd, C. 2004. Farm-Level Issues in Aquaculture Certification: Tilapia. (http://www.worldwildlife.org/what/globalmarkets/aquaculture/item5223.html).
- Bunch, E., and I. Bejarano. 1997. The effects of environmental factors on the susceptibility of hybrid Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureas to streptococcosis. Israeli Journal of Aquaculture 49(2): 67–76.Google Scholar
- Chinabut, S. 2002. A case study of isopod infestation in Tilapia cage culture in Thailand. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper Issue 406, 201–202.Google Scholar
- Clemmens, A.J., R.G. Allen, and C.M. Burt. 2008. Technical concepts related to conservation of irrigation and rainwater in agricultural systems. Water Resources Research 44, W00E03. doi: 10.1029/2007WR006095
- Connell, J.J., and R. Hardy. 1982. Trends in fish utilisation. Oxford: Fishing News Books.Google Scholar
- Delgado, C., N. Wada, M.W. Rosegrant, S. Meijer, and M. Ahmed. 2003. Fish to 2020: Supply and demand in changing global markets. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Dempster, P. 2007. Main future technological challenges: Views of supply industry. In Presentation Given at the First Stakeholder Meeting of the European Aquaculture Technology Platform. Paleis der Academiën, Brussels.Google Scholar
- Edwards, P. 1993. Environmental issues in integrated agriculture-aquaculture and wastewater-fed fish culture systems. In Environment and aquaculture in developing countries, ed. R. Pullin, H. Rosenthal, and J. Maclean, 139–167. Manila: International Centre for Living Aquatic Resources Management.Google Scholar
- FAO. 2006. Regional review of aquaculture development 3. Asia and the Pacific—2005. In FAO fisheries circular, 97. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- Fearnside, P. 2001. Soybean cultivation as a threat to the environment in Brazil. Environmental Conservation 28: 23–28.Google Scholar
- Fitzsimmons, K. 2006. Prospect and potential for global production. In Tilapia: Biology, culture and nutrition, ed. C. Lim and C. Webster, 51–62. New York: Food Products Press.Google Scholar
- Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2007. FISHSTAT Database.Google Scholar
- Garcia, J., P. Klesius, and J. Evans. 2004. Survival and virulence of Streptococcus agalactiae and its transmission from Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) when exposed to different water microcosms and temperatures. [Abstract]. In 19th Annual Meeting of the Southern Conference on Animal Parasites. Biloxi, MS: United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
- Gong, Z., and P. Zie. 2001. Impact of eutrophication on biodiversity of the macrozoobenthos community in a Chinese shallow lake. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 16: 171–178.Google Scholar
- Helminen, H., J. Karjalain, M. Kurkilahti, M. Rask, and J. Sarvala. 2000. Eutrophication and fish biodiversity in Finnish Lakes. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung Limnologie 27: 194–199.Google Scholar
- Intervet. 2006. Diseases of Tilapia—an introduction. (http://www.thefishsite.com/articles/139/diseases-of-tilapia-an-introduction).
- Karapanagiotidis, I.T., M.V. Bell, D.C. Little, A. Yakupitiyage, and S.K. Rakshit. 2006. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of wild and farmed Tilapias in Thailand: Effect of aquaculture practices and implications for human nutrition. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 54: 4304–4310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Karim, M. 2006. The Livelihood Impacts of Fishponds Integrated Within Farming Systems in Mymensingh District, Bangladesh. University of Stirling, Stirling, 317 pp.Google Scholar
- Lehane, L., and G. Rawlin. 2000. Topically acquired bacterial zoonoses from fish: A review. Medical Journal of Australia 173: 256–259.Google Scholar
- Little, D.C., M. Karim, D. Turongrouang, E.J. Morales, F.J. Murray, B.K. Barman, M.M. Hague, N. Kundu, et al. 2007. Livelihood impacts of ponds in Asia: Opportunities and constraints, in fishponds in farming systems. In Fishponds in Farming Systems, ed. A. van der Zijpp, and J.A.J. Verreth, 177–202. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
- Little, D.C. and B. Belton. 2008. Understanding limitations of the Tilapia Aquaculture Dialogue. Paper presented the WWF TAD Meeting, December 15–16, in Washington, DC.Google Scholar
- Little, D.C., and P. Edwards. 1999. Alternative strategies for livestock-fish integration with emphasis on Asia. AMBIO 28: 118–124.Google Scholar
- Little, D.C., and P. Edwards. 2003. Integrated livestock-fish farming systems. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- Lowe-McConnell, R. 2006. The Tilapia Trail: The Life Story of a Fish Biologist. Ascot, UK: MPM Publishing.Google Scholar
- Papatryphon, E., J. Petit, S.J. Kaushik, and H.M.G. van der Werf. 2004. Environmental impact assessment of salmonid feeds using life cycle assessment. AMBIO 33: 316–323.Google Scholar
- Phong Lan, N.T., P.C. Cam, A. Dalsgaard, and D. Mara. 2007. Microbiological quality offish grown in wastewater-fed and non-wastewater-fed fishponds in Hanoi, Vietnam: Influence of hygiene practices in local retail markets. Journal of Water Health 5: 209–218.Google Scholar
- Shoemaker, C. and P. Klesius. 1997. Streptococcal disease problems and control: A review. In Tilapia aquaculture, ed. K. Fitzsimmons, 671–680. NREAES, Ithaca.Google Scholar
- Tacon, A., M. Hasan, and R. Subasinghe. 2006. Use of fishery resources as feed inputs to aquaculture development: Trends and policy implications. In FAO fisheries circular. Rome: FAO.Google Scholar
- WWF. 2007. Tilapia aquaculture dialogues—ensuring responsible management of the world’s farmed fish. (http://www.worldwildlife.org/cci/pubs/salmonfactsheet.pdf).
- WWF. 2008a. Tilapia Aquaculture Dialogue Draft Standards Version 1.0. (http://www.worldwildlife.org/what/globalmarkets/aquaculture/WWFBinaryitem10225.pdf).
- WWF. 2008b. Pangasius aquaculture dialogue. 3–4 December 2008. Meeting Summary. (http://www.worldwildlife.org/what/globalmarkets/aquaculture/WWFBinaryitem11128.pdf).
- WWF. 2008c. (http://www.wwf.org/).
- WWF. 2009. WWF to Help Fund Creation Of Aquaculture Stewardship Council. (http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2009/WWFPresitem11339.html).
- Yi, Y., and K.C. Lin. 2002. Supplemental feeding for semi-intensive culture of Red Tilapia in brackishwater ponds. In Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP Annual Technical Report, ed. K. McElwee, K. Lewis, M. Nidiffer, and P. Buitrago, 97–102. Oregon State University, Corvallis.Google Scholar