Advertisement

On the discovery of social roles in large scale social systems

  • Derek DoranEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The social role of a participant in a social system is a label conceptualizing the circumstances under which she interacts within it. They may be used as a theoretical tool that explains why and how users participate in an online social system. Social role analysis also serves practical purposes, such as reducing the structure of complex systems to relationships among roles rather than alters, and enabling a comparison of social systems that emerge in similar contexts. This article presents a data-driven approach for the discovery of social roles in large scale social systems. Motivated by an analysis of the present art, the method discovers roles by the conditional triad censuses of user ego-networks, which is a promising tool because they capture the degree to which basic social forces push upon a user to interact with others. Clusters of censuses, inferred from samples of large scale network carefully chosen to preserve local structural properties, define the social roles. The promise of the method is demonstrated by discussing and discovering the roles that emerge in both Facebook and Wikipedia. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and future opportunities in the discovery of social roles in large social systems.

Keywords

Social Role Cluster Coefficient Large Scale Social System Online Social Network Central Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahmed NK, Neville J, Kompella R (2012) Network sampling: from static to streaming graphs. arXiv preprint arXiv:1211.3412
  2. Alderson AS, Beckfield J (2004) Power and position in the world city system1. Am J Soc 109(4):811–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baresch B, Knight L, Harp D, Yaschur C (2011) Friends who choose your news: an analysis of content links on facebook. Off Res J Int Symp Online Journal 1:1–24Google Scholar
  4. Barkhuus L, Tashiro J (2012) Student socialization in the age of facebook. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp 133–142. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  5. Batagelj V, Mrvar A (2001) A subquadratic triad census algorithm for large sparse networks with maximum degree. Soc Netw 23(3):237–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Batjargal B (2007) Network triads: transitivity, referral and venture capital decisions in china and russia. J Int Bus Stud 38(6):998–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baum A, Shapiro A, Murray D, Wideman MV (1979) Interpersonal mediation of perceived crowding and control in residential dyads and triads. J Appl Soc Phychol 9(6):491–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borgatti SP, Everett MG (1989) The class of all regular equivalences: algebraic structure and computation. Soc Netw 11(1):65–88MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borgatti SP, Everett MG (1992) Notions of position in social network analysis. Sociol Methodol 22(1):1–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borgatti SP, Everett MG (1992) Regular blockmodels of multiway, multimode matrices. Soc Netw 14(1):91–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Borgatti SP, Everett MG (1993) Two algorithms for computing regular equivalence. Soc Netw 15(4):361–376MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosch TE (2009) Using online social networking for teaching and learning: Facebook use at the university of cape town. Communication 35(2):185–200Google Scholar
  13. Brass D, Butterfield K, Skaggs B (1998) Relationships and unethical behavior: a social network perspective. Acad Manag Rev 23(1):14–31Google Scholar
  14. Burke M, Kraut R (2013) Using facebook after losing a job: Differential benefits of strong and weak ties. In: Proc. of the ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pp 1419–1430. ACMGoogle Scholar
  15. Burt RS (1990) Detecting role equivalence. Soc Netw 12(1):83–97MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cambria E, Rajagopal D, Olsher D, Das D (2013) Big social data analysis. Big data computing, pp 401–414Google Scholar
  17. Caplow T (1968) Two against one: Coalitions in triads. Prentice-Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  18. Chan J, Hayes C, Daly EM (2010) Decomposing discussion forums and boards using user roles. In: Intl. Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, vol 10, pp 215–218Google Scholar
  19. Chen W, Wang Y, Yang S (2009) Efficient influence maximization in social networks. In: Proceedings of 15th ACM SIGKDD Intl. Conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp 199–208. ACMGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen W, Yuan Y, Zhang L (2010) Scalable influence maximization in social neworks under the linear threshold model. In: Proceeidngs of 10th IEEE Intl. Conference on Data MiningGoogle Scholar
  21. Clauset A, Shalizi CR, Newman M (2009) Power-Law Distributions in Empirical Data. Technical report, arXiv:0706.1062v2 [physics.data-an]
  22. Cook KS, Emerson RM (1978) Power, equity and commitment in exchange networks. American Sociological Review, pp 721–739Google Scholar
  23. Cook KS, Emerson RM, Gillmore MR, Yamagishi T (1983) The distribution of power in exchange networks: Theory and experimental results. American journal of sociology, pp 275–305Google Scholar
  24. Davis J, Leinhardt S (1967) The structure of positive interpersonal relations in small groups. Sociol Theor Prog 2:218–251Google Scholar
  25. DiMaggio P (1986) Structural analysis of organizational fields: Ablockmodel approach. Res Org Behav 8:335–370Google Scholar
  26. DiMicco JM, Millen DR (2007) Identity management: multiple presentations of self in facebook. In: Proceedings of ACM Intl. Conference on Supporting Group Work, pp 383–386. ACMGoogle Scholar
  27. Doran D (2014) Triad-based role discovery for large social systems. In: Proceedings of Intl. Conference on Social Informatics Workshops, LNCS 8852, pp 130–143Google Scholar
  28. Doran D, Alhazmi H, Gokhale S (2013) Triads, transitivity, and social effects in user interactions on Facebook. In: Proceedings of IEEE Intl. Conference on Computational Aspects of Social Networks, pp 68–73Google Scholar
  29. Dorogovtsev SN, Goltsev AV, Mendes JFF (2006) K-core organization of complex networks. Phys Rev Lett 96(4):040601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Erickson BH (1988) The relational basis of attitudes. Soc Struct: Netw Approach 99:121Google Scholar
  31. Fagiolo G (2007) Clustering in complex directed networks. Phys Rev E 76(2):026107MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fan T-F, Liau C-J (2013) Many-valued modal logic and regular equivalences in weighted social networks. In: Symbolic and quantitative approaches to reasoning with uncertainty, pp 194–205. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  33. Faust K (2008) Triadic configurations in limited choice sociometric networks: empirical and theoretical results. Social Networks, pp 273–282Google Scholar
  34. Field S, Frank KA, Schiller K, Riegle-Crumb C, Muller C (2006) Identifying positions from affiliation networks: preserving the duality of people and events. Soc Netw 28(2):97–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedkin NE, Johnsen EC (1997) Social positions in influence networks. Soc Netw 19(3):209–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fujimoto K, Valente TW (2012) Social network influences on adolescent substance use: disentangling structural equivalence from cohesion. Soc Sci Med 74(12):1952–1960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gasch AP, Eisen MB (2002) Exploring the conditional coregulation of yeast gene expression through fuzzy k-means clustering. Genome Biol 3(11):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Giannakis GB, Bach F, Cendrillon R, Mahoney M, Neville J (2014) Signal processing for big dataGoogle Scholar
  39. Gleave E, Welser HT, Lento TM, Smith MA (2009) A conceptual and operational definition of 'social role' in online community. In: 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  40. Gliwa B, Zygmunt A, Koźlak J (2013) Analysis of roles and groups in blogosphere. In: Proceeidngs of the 8th Intl. Conference on Computer Recognition Systems, pp 299–308Google Scholar
  41. Golder SA, Donath J (2004) Social roles in electronic communities. Internet Res 5:19–22Google Scholar
  42. González MC, Herrmann HJ, Kertész J, Vicsek T (2007) Community structure and ethnic preferences in school friendship networks. Phys A: Stat Mech Appl 379(1):307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hanneman RA, Riddle M (2005) Introduction to social network methodsGoogle Scholar
  44. Hautz J, Hutter K, Fuller J, Matzler K, Rieger M (2010) How to establish an online innovation community? The role of users and their innovative content. In: Hawaii Intl. Conference on System Sciences, pp 1–11Google Scholar
  45. He X, Zha H, Ding CH, Simon HD (2002) Web document clustering using hyperlink structures. Comput Stat Data Anal 41(1):19–45MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  46. Holland P, Leinhardt S (1978) An omnibus test for social structure using triads. Sociol Methods Res 7:227–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jackson JE (2004) A user’s guide to principal components. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Jamali M, Abolhassani H (2006) Different aspects of social network analysis. In: Intl. Conference on Web Intelligence, pp 66–72. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  49. Jin R, Lee VE, Hong H (2011) Axiomatic ranking of network role similarity. In: Proceedings of Intl. Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp 922–930. ACMGoogle Scholar
  50. Jung M, Choi M (2010) A mechanism of institutional isomorphism in referral networks among hospitals in seoul, south korea. Health Care Manag 29(2):133–146Google Scholar
  51. Kempe D, Kleinberg J, Tardos E (2003) Maximizing the spred of influence through a social network. In: Proceedings of 9th ACM Intl. Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, pp 137–146Google Scholar
  52. Khot S (2001) Improved inapproximability results for maxclique, chromatic number and approximate graph coloring. In: Proceedings of IEEE Syomposium on Foundations of Computer, Science, pp 600–609Google Scholar
  53. Kick EL, McKinney LA, McDonald S, Jorgenson A (2011) A multiple-network analysis of the world system of nations, 1995–1999. Sage handbook of social network analysis. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, pp 311–27Google Scholar
  54. Kumar R, Novak J, Tomkins A (2010) Structure and evolution of online social networks. In: Link mining: models, algorithms, and applications, pp 337–357. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  55. Kwak H, Lee C, Park H, Moon S (2010) What is Twitter, a Social Network or a News Media? In: Proceedings of 19th Intl. World Wide Web Conference, pp 591–600Google Scholar
  56. Labatut V, Balasque J-M (2012) Detection and interpretation of communities in complex networks: practical methods and application. In: Computational Social Networks, pp 81–113. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  57. Lampinen A, Tamminen S, Oulasvirta A (2009) All my people right here, right now: management of group co-presence on a social networking site. In: Proceedings of ACM Intl. Conference on Supporting Group Work, pp 281–290. ACMGoogle Scholar
  58. Laniado D, Tasso R, Volkovich Y, Kaltenbrunner A (2011) When the wikipedians talk: Network and tree structure of wikipedia discussion pages. In: Intl. Conference on Weblogs and Social MediaGoogle Scholar
  59. Leskovec J, Faloutsos C (2006) Sampling from Large Graphs. In: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data MiningGoogle Scholar
  60. Li R, Wang S, Deng H, Wang R, Chang KC-C (2012) Towards social user profiling: unified and discriminative influence model for inferring home locations. In: Proceedings of Intl. Conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp 1023–1031. ACMGoogle Scholar
  61. Lipsky L (2009) Queueing theory: a linear algebraic approach. Springer, 2nd ednGoogle Scholar
  62. Lorrain F, White HC (1971) Structural equivalence of individuals in social networks. J Math Sociol 1(1):49–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Malcolm R, Morrison C, Grandison T, Thorpe S, Christie K, Wallace A, Green D, Jarrett J, Campbell A (2014) Increasing the accessibility to big data systems via a common services api. In: IEEE International Conference on Big Data, pp 883–892. IEEEGoogle Scholar
  64. Maniu S, Abdessalem T, Cautis B (2011) Casting a web of trust over wikipedia: an interaction-based approach. In: Proceedings of the 20th international conference companion on World wide web, pp 87–88. ACMGoogle Scholar
  65. McAndrew FT, Jeong HS (2012) Who does what on facebook? Age, sex, and relationship status as predictors of facebook use. Comput Human Behav 28(6):2359–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Medelyan O, Witten IH, Milne D (2008) Topic indexing with wikipedia. In: Proceedings of the AAAI WikiAI workshop, pp 19–24Google Scholar
  67. Mislove A, Marcon M, Gummadi K, Druschel P, Bhattacharjee B (2007) Measurement and analysis of online social networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Internet Measurement ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  68. Moody J (1998) Matrix methods for calculating the triad census. Social Networks, pp 291–299Google Scholar
  69. Morselli D, Spini D, Devos T (2012) Human values and trust in institutions across countries: a multilevel test of schwartzs hypothesis of structural equivalence. Surv Res Methods 6(1):49–60Google Scholar
  70. Newman M (2010) Networks: an introduction. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  71. Nolker RD, Zhou L (2005) Social computing and weighting to identify member roles in online communities. In: Web Intelligence, 2005. Proceedings. The 2005 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on, pp 87–93Google Scholar
  72. Opsahl T, Panzarasa P (2009) Clustering in weighted networks. Soc Netw 31(2):155–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pallotti F, Lomi A (2011) Network influence and organizational performance: the effects of tie strength and structural equivalence. Eur Manag J 29(5):389–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pempek TA, Yermolayeva YA, Calvert SL (2009) College students’ social networking experiences on facebook. J Appl Dev Psychol 30(3):227–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Radil SM, Flint C, Tita GE (2010) Spatializing social networks: Using social network analysis to investigate geographies of gang rivalry, territoriality, and violence in los angeles. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 100(2):307–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rothenberg RB, Potterat JJ, Woodhouse DE, Muth SQ, Darrow WW, Klovdahl AS (1998) Social network dynamics and hiv transmission. Aids 12(12):1529–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rowe M, Fernandez M, Angeletou S, Alani H (2013) Community analysis through semantic rules and role composition derivation. Web Semant: Sci Serv Agents World Wide Web 18(1):31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Scott J, Carrington PJ (2011) The SAGE handbook of social network analysis. SAGE publications, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Simmel G, Wolff KH (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Macmillan Publishing Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  80. Singer JB (2014) User-generated visibility: secondary gatekeeping in a shared media space. New Media Soc 16(1):55–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Skeels MM, Grudin J (2009) When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin. In: Proceedings of ACM Intl. Conference on Supporting Group Work, pp 95–104. ACMGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith DA, White DR (1992) Structure and dynamics of the global economy: network analysis of international trade 1965–1980. Soc Forces 70(4):857–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tan P-N, Steinbach M, Kumar V (2006) Introduction to data mining. Addison-WesleyGoogle Scholar
  84. Tang J, Sun J, Wang C, Yang Z (2009) Social influence analysis in large-scale networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining, pp 807–816. ACMGoogle Scholar
  85. Tselykh A, Veselov G (2013) Positional analysis and mapping of scientific networks. World Appl Sci J 27(12):1625–1629Google Scholar
  86. Ugander J, Karrer B, Backstrom L, Marlow C (2001) The anatomy of the Facebook social graph. Technical report, arXiv:1111.4503v1 [cs.SI]
  87. Viswanath B, Mislove A, Cha M, Gummadi K (2009) On the evolution of user interaction in Facebook. In: Proceedings of 2nd ACM Workshop on Online Social NetworksGoogle Scholar
  88. Vu HT (2014) The online audience as gatekeeper: the influence of reader metrics on news editorial selection. Journalism 15(8):1094–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wasserman S, Faust K (1994) Social network analysis: methods and applications, vol 8. Cambridge university press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  90. Wasserman SS (1977) Random Directed Graph Distrbutions and the Triad Census in Social Networks. Journal of Mathematical Sociology 5:61–86MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  91. Wellman B (1997) Structural analysis: From method and metaphor to theory and substance. Contemporary Studies in Sociology 15:19–61Google Scholar
  92. Welser HT, Cosley D, Kossinets G, Lin A, Dokshin F, Gay G, Smith M (2011) Finding social roles in wikipedia. In: Proceedings of ACM iConference, pp 122–129Google Scholar
  93. White AJ, Chan J, Hayes C, Murphy B (2012) Mixed membership models for exploring user roles in online fora. In: International conference on weblogs and social mediaGoogle Scholar
  94. White HC (1997) Varieties of markets. Contemporary Studies in Sociology 15:226–260Google Scholar
  95. White HC, Boorman SA, Breiger RL (1976) Social structure from multiple networks. i. blockmodels of roles and positions. Am J Sociol 81:730–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wilson C, Boe B, Sala A, Puttaswamy KP, Zhao BY (2009) User interactions in social networks and their implications. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM European conference on computer systems. ACM, New York, pp 205–218Google Scholar
  97. Wilson C, Sala A, Puttaswamy KP, Zhao BY (2012) Beyond social graphs: User interactions in online social networks and their implications. ACM Transactions on the Web 6(4):17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zaheer A, Bell GG (2005) Benefiting from network position: firm capabilities, structural holes, and performance. Strategic management journal 26(9):809–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang Y, Chen M, Mao S, Hu L, Leung VC (2014) Cap: community activity prediction based on big data analysis. IEEE Network 28(4):52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhong D, Zhang H (1997) Clustering methods for video browsing and annotation. Technical report, In: SPIE conference on storage and retrieval for image and video databasesGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhou M, Park C-U (2012) The cohesion effect of structural equivalence on global bilateral trade, 1948–2000. International Sociology 27(4):502–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhu T, Wang B, Wu B, Zhu C (2011) Role defining using behavior-based clustering in telecommunication network. Expert Systems with Applications 38(4):3902–3908CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Kno.e.sis Research CenterWright State UniversityDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations