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Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 10, pp 13059–13075 | Cite as

Targeting cancer stem cell-specific markers and/or associated signaling pathways for overcoming cancer drug resistance

  • Peyman Ranji
  • Tayyebali Salmani Kesejini
  • Sara Saeedikhoo
  • Ali Mohammad Alizadeh
Review

Abstract

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumor cells with capabilities of self-renewal, dedifferentiation, tumorigenicity, and inherent chemo-and-radio therapy resistance. Tumor resistance is believed to be caused by CSCs that are intrinsically challenging to common treatments. A number of CSC markers including CD44, CD133, receptor tyrosine kinase, aldehyde dehydrogenases, epithelial cell adhesion molecule/epithelial specific antigen, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 have been proved as the useful targets for defining CSC population in solid tumors. Furthermore, targeting CSC markers through new therapeutic strategies will ultimately improve treatments and overcome cancer drug resistance. Therefore, the identification of novel strategies to increase sensitivity of CSC markers has major clinical implications. This review will focus on the innovative treatment methods such as nano-, immuno-, gene-, and chemotherapy approaches for targeting CSC-specific markers and/or their associated signaling pathways.

Keywords

Cancer stem cell Drug resistance Nanotechnology Gene therapy Immunotherapy Review 

Abbreviations

ABCG2

ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2

ABCB5

ATP-binding cassette transporter B5

ADR

Adriamycin

ALDH1

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

ANT2

Adenine nucleotide translocase 2

ATRA

All-trans retinoic acid

AuNRs

Gold nanorods

BRAC1

Breast cancer type 1

CAF

Carcinoma-associated fibroblast

Chk1

Checkpoint kinase

CSF-1

Colony stimulating factor 1

CSCs

Cancer stem cells

dCD133KDEL

Deimmunized Pseudomonas exotoxin fused to anti-CD133 scFv with a KDEL terminus

DEAB

4-(Diethylamino)benzaldehyde

DLBCL

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

DNR

Daunorubicin

DPAGT1

Dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase 1

DOX

Doxorubicin

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EpCAM

Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

ERK

Extracellular-signal-regulated kinases

ESA

Epithelial specific antigen

FA

Folate

FAHAC18

Folate hyaluronic acidoctadecyl

FLT3

FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3

GBM

Glioblastoma multiforme

GRP78

78 kDa glucose-regulated protein

GSK3β

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

HA

Hyaluronan

HAC18

Hyaluronic acidoctadecyl

HAPEI/HA

HA poly(ethyleneimine)/HA

Hh

Hedgehog

ISL

Isoliquiritigenin

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

HDAC6

Histone deacetylase 6

HER2

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

HSP90

Heat shock protein 90

JAK

Janus family kinases

JNK

Jun N-terminal kinase

LA

Lipoic acid

pDNA

Plasmid DNA

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

METF

Metformin

mAb

Monoclonal antibody

MDR1

Multidrug resistance protein 1

MM

Multiple myeloma

mPEG-PLGA-PLL, PEAL

Monomethoxy polyethylene glycol–polylactic acid/glycolic acid–poly(l-lysine) triblock copolymer

MT

Microtubules

NPs

Nanoparticles

NSCLC

Non-small cell lung cancer

PEG

Poly(ethylene glycol)

PEO

Poly(ethylene oxide)

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor

PI3

Phosphoinositide 3

PPI

Polypropylenimine

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10

PTPRK

Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase k

PTX

Paclitaxel

P-gp

Permeability glycoprotein

PZ-39

N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-[(6-{[4,6-di(4-morpholinyl)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl] amino}-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl; sulfanyl]acetamide)

ROR1

Type I receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor

RTK

Receptor tyrosine kinase

SAL

Salinomycin

SCF

Stem cell factor

shRNA

Short hairpin RNA

STAT

Signal transducers and activators of transcription

SSCs

Somatic stem cells

TKI

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

Topo

Topoisomerase

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was founded by Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Grant Number 26012).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The author(s) report no conflicts of interest and are responsible for the content of the paper.

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peyman Ranji
    • 1
  • Tayyebali Salmani Kesejini
    • 1
  • Sara Saeedikhoo
    • 1
  • Ali Mohammad Alizadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Cancer Research CenterTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

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