Tumors progress in a specific area, which supports its development, spreading or shrinking in time with the presence of different factors that effect the fate of the cancer cells. This specialized site is called “tumor microenvironment” and has a composition of heterogenous materials. The immune cells are also residents of this stromal, cancerous, and inflammatory environment, and their types, densities, or functional differences are one of the key factors that mediate the fate of a tumor. T cells as a vital part of the immune system also are a component of tumor microenvironment, and their roles have been elucidated in many studies. In this review, we focused on the immune system components by focusing on T cells and detailed T helper cell subsets in tumor microenvironment and how their behaviors affect either the tumor or the patient’s outcome.
KeywordsT cells T helper cells Th17 cells Cancer immunology Tumor microenvironment
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Conflict of interest
The authors do not have any kind of conflict of interest affecting the compilation of the current knowledge in this area for writing this review. They apologize to the ones whose elegant studies are not included here because of space limitations.
Research in the corresponding author’s laboratory is in the Th17 T cell differentiation and immune regulation area and supported by grants from the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Grant numbers 110T412 and 113Z362 to Dr. Ayten Nalbant). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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