Tumor Biology

, Volume 37, Issue 12, pp 15477–15482 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits invasiveness of glioblastoma through modulation of VEGF-A

  • Shaoyi Li
  • Yun Gao
  • Weining Ma
  • Tianci Cheng
  • Yunhui Liu
Research Article

Abstract

The malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is largely due to its local invasion and the presence of the tumor in the relatively restrained region in the brain. Hence, effective prevention of the cancer cell invasion is substantially critical for controlling the growth and deterioration of GBM. We have recently reported the role of ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) in suppressing the growth of GBM through EGFR/PI3k/Akt/mTor signaling pathways. Here, we further showed that GRh2 efficiently inhibited the cancer vascularization in vivo. In vitro, GRh2 dose-dependently inhibited the protein, but not messenger RNA (mRNA) of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) in GBM cells. We then examined the underlying mechanisms and found that GRh2 increased the levels of miR-497, which bound to 3′UTR of VEGF-A mRNA to inhibit its translation. Together, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for GRh2 in inhibition of GBM-associated cancer vascularization, which may contribute to the effects of GRh2 on suppression of GBM cancer growth and invasion.

Keywords

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) miR-497 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30772246, No. 81072655), Liaoning Provincial Department of Education Science Research Foundation (L2010586), Liaoning Provincial Natural Science Foundation (201202286), and Shengjing Free Researcher Project (2011).

Conflicts of interest

None

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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaoyi Li
    • 1
  • Yun Gao
    • 2
  • Weining Ma
    • 1
  • Tianci Cheng
    • 1
  • Yunhui Liu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryShengjing Hospital of China Medical UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.Center of Molecular PathologyHe UniversityShenyangChina

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