Tumor Biology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 2437–2445 | Cite as

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Diagnostic investigations of canine prostatitis incidence together with benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate malignancies, and biochemical recurrence in high-risk prostate cancer as a model for human study

  • Radmehr Shafiee
  • Alireza Shariat
  • Soheil Khalili
  • Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri
  • Aram Mokarizadeh
  • Ali AnissianEmail author
  • Mohammad Reza Hafezi AhmadiEmail author
  • Ehsan Hosseini
  • Mostafa Naderafif
  • Siamak Mohsenzadeh
  • Mohammad Hosein Rasoulian
  • Reza Rezapour
  • Maryam Pourzaer
Research Article


The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute and chronic inflammation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and cancer of the prostate glands in the canine as a human model in prostate disorders. The study was carried out on 12 cases of different male dogs of terrier (50 %), German shepherd (25 %) breeds, and Greden (25 %), and the age of the dogs ranged from 6 to 13 years (average age 7.8 ± 3.6). The bodyweight ranged from 3.6 to 7.9 kg. Signalment, clinical signs, and diagnostic tools such as ultrasonography, urinary cytology, and histopathology are presented. Dysuria was the most common clinical sign in this study and occurred in 10/12 canine (83.3 %) included. Other clinical signs included lameness (5/12 canine, 41.6 %) and constipation (3/12 canine, 25 %). The range of duration of clinical signs was 5 days to 7 months. Moreover, in the present study, the urinary biochemical markers of different prostate lesions include blood, protein, and glucose and were detected in 11/12 cases (91.6 %), 5/12 cases (41.6 %), and 2/12 cases (16.6 %), respectively. Taken together, sonographic data were classified into four groups based on histological diagnosis. In 7/12 cases (58.4 %), the prostate appeared to have BPH lesions, and the remaining lesions included inflammation (3/12 cases, 25 %), abscess (1 case, 8.3 %), and adenocarcinoma (1 case, 8/3 %) on ultrasound. In all cases, prostate tissue had an irregular echotexture. None of the dogs had sonographic evidence of sublumbar lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, we looked at the prevalence of inflammation (33.3 % chronic and 8.3% acute) and BPH (58.4 %) in dogs of different ages and breeds, and also, we observed chronic inflammation in >20 % of dogs, which was about 25 % in 3 cases of the 12 cases referred. More chronic inflammation was associated with more BPH. The majority of the asymptomatic inflammation that is detected in the prostate is classified as chronic inflammation (i.e., as evidenced by the presence of monocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory cell infiltrates); however, acute inflammation is also observed to a lesser degree. Acute inflammation, as is typically evidenced by the infiltration of neutrophils, is classically an indicator of an infectious process. Finally, the patients included seven castrated, four castrated together with antibiotic therapy, and one castrated together with chemotherapy intact male dogs, which were treated with the mentioned cases. In conclusion, chronic prostatic inflammation could be a central mechanism in BPH progression, but the pathological features of tissue inflammation were different between BPH and prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, the histological examination of prostate biopsies remains the only way to diagnose prostatic disorders.


Prostate Sonography Cytology Pathology Canine 



The authors thank Dr Javad Javanbakht for his help with this manuscript.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radmehr Shafiee
    • 1
  • Alireza Shariat
    • 2
  • Soheil Khalili
    • 2
  • Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri
    • 3
  • Aram Mokarizadeh
    • 4
  • Ali Anissian
    • 5
    Email author
  • Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi
    • 6
    Email author
  • Ehsan Hosseini
    • 7
  • Mostafa Naderafif
    • 8
  • Siamak Mohsenzadeh
    • 8
  • Mohammad Hosein Rasoulian
    • 9
  • Reza Rezapour
    • 9
  • Maryam Pourzaer
    • 10
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineTehran UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKarajIran
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineTehran UniversityTehranIran
  4. 4.Department of Immunology, Faculty of MedicineKurdistan University of Medical SciencesSanandajIran
  5. 5.Department of Veterinary, College of Agriculture, Abhar BranchIslamic Azad UniversityAbharIran
  6. 6.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineIlam University of Medical SciencesIlamIran
  7. 7.Faculty of Para Veterinary MedicineIlam UniversityIlamIran
  8. 8.Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  9. 9.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUrmia UniversityUrmiaIran
  10. 10.Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Science, Damghan BranchIslamic Azad UniversityDamghanIran

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