RETRACTED ARTICLE: Diagnostic investigations of canine prostatitis incidence together with benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate malignancies, and biochemical recurrence in high-risk prostate cancer as a model for human study
- 1.1k Downloads
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of acute and chronic inflammation, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and cancer of the prostate glands in the canine as a human model in prostate disorders. The study was carried out on 12 cases of different male dogs of terrier (50 %), German shepherd (25 %) breeds, and Greden (25 %), and the age of the dogs ranged from 6 to 13 years (average age 7.8 ± 3.6). The bodyweight ranged from 3.6 to 7.9 kg. Signalment, clinical signs, and diagnostic tools such as ultrasonography, urinary cytology, and histopathology are presented. Dysuria was the most common clinical sign in this study and occurred in 10/12 canine (83.3 %) included. Other clinical signs included lameness (5/12 canine, 41.6 %) and constipation (3/12 canine, 25 %). The range of duration of clinical signs was 5 days to 7 months. Moreover, in the present study, the urinary biochemical markers of different prostate lesions include blood, protein, and glucose and were detected in 11/12 cases (91.6 %), 5/12 cases (41.6 %), and 2/12 cases (16.6 %), respectively. Taken together, sonographic data were classified into four groups based on histological diagnosis. In 7/12 cases (58.4 %), the prostate appeared to have BPH lesions, and the remaining lesions included inflammation (3/12 cases, 25 %), abscess (1 case, 8.3 %), and adenocarcinoma (1 case, 8/3 %) on ultrasound. In all cases, prostate tissue had an irregular echotexture. None of the dogs had sonographic evidence of sublumbar lymph node enlargement. Histopathologically, we looked at the prevalence of inflammation (33.3 % chronic and 8.3% acute) and BPH (58.4 %) in dogs of different ages and breeds, and also, we observed chronic inflammation in >20 % of dogs, which was about 25 % in 3 cases of the 12 cases referred. More chronic inflammation was associated with more BPH. The majority of the asymptomatic inflammation that is detected in the prostate is classified as chronic inflammation (i.e., as evidenced by the presence of monocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory cell infiltrates); however, acute inflammation is also observed to a lesser degree. Acute inflammation, as is typically evidenced by the infiltration of neutrophils, is classically an indicator of an infectious process. Finally, the patients included seven castrated, four castrated together with antibiotic therapy, and one castrated together with chemotherapy intact male dogs, which were treated with the mentioned cases. In conclusion, chronic prostatic inflammation could be a central mechanism in BPH progression, but the pathological features of tissue inflammation were different between BPH and prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, the histological examination of prostate biopsies remains the only way to diagnose prostatic disorders.
KeywordsProstate Sonography Cytology Pathology Canine
The authors thank Dr Javad Javanbakht for his help with this manuscript.
Conflicts of interest
- 7.Leav I, Lau KM, Adams JY, McNeal JE, Taplin ME, Wang J, et al. Comparative studies of the estrogen receptors beta and alpha and the androgen receptor in normal human prostate glands, dysplasia, and in primary and metastatic carcinoma. Am J Pathol. 2001;159(1):79–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 22.MacLachlan NJ, Kennedy PC. Tumors of the genital systems. In: Meuten DJ, editor. Tumors in domestic animals. 4th ed. Ames: Iowa State University Press; 2002. p. 568–70.Google Scholar
- 25.Kutzler M, Yeager A. Prostatic diseases. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine WB Saunders. 2005: 1809–1819Google Scholar
- 26.Johnston SD, Root Kustritz MV, Olson PN. Disorders of the canine prostate Canine and feline theriogenologyWB Saunders, 2001: 337–355Google Scholar
- 28.Gobello C, Corrada Y. Noninfectious prostatic diseases in dogs. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2002;24:99–107.Google Scholar
- 39.Rupp M, O’Hara B, McCullogh L. Prostatic carcinoma in urine specimens: cytologic, histologic and immunocytochemical features. Acta Cytol. 1990;34:744–5.Google Scholar