RETRACTED ARTICLE: Inhibition of FoxO1 nuclear exclusion prevents metastasis of Glioblastoma
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans, with extremely poor patient survival. Although previous studies have demonstrated that expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in glioblastoma promotes cancer metastasis, the upstream molecular signaling cascades that control activation of MMP9 remain largely unknown. Here, we used a human glioblastoma line, A-172, to examine molecular signaling to activate MMP9. We found that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in A-172 cells activated MMP9, resulting in an increase in cancer invasiveness. A specific inhibitor for EGFR efficiently blocked EGF-induced activation of MMP9 and then cancer invasiveness. Moreover, an inhibitor for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 K)/protein kinase B (Akt) significantly inhibited the EGF-induced activation of MMP9. Furthermore, nuclear exclusion of a major Akt downstream target, Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), was induced by Akt activation, which could be inhibited by either an EGFR inhibitor or by PI-3 K/Akt inhibitor. An expression of a constitutive nuclear form of FoxO1 significantly inhibited MMP9 activation induced by EGF. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGF/EGFR signaling activates downstream PI-3 K/Akt to induce FoxO1 nuclear exclusion, which activates MMP9 to promote glioblastoma invasiveness. Thus, FoxO1 appears to be a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting metastasis of glioblastoma.
KeywordsGlioblastoma FoxO1 PI-3 K Akt
Conflicts of interest
- 10.Emlet DR, Gupta P, Holgado-Madruga M, Del Vecchio CA, Mitra SS, Han SY, Li G, Jensen KC, Vogel H, Wei-Xu L, Skirboll SS, Wong AJ. Targeting a glioblastoma cancer stem cell population defined by EGF receptor variant III. Cancer Res 2013.Google Scholar