Characterization of cell-free circulating DNA in plasma in patients with prostate cancer
Cell-free circulating DNA in plasma and serum may serve as a biomarker for malignant tumor detection and follow up in patients with a variety of solid tumors including prostate cancer. In healthy patients, DNA is normally released from an apoptotic source which generates small fragments of cell-free DNA, whereas cancer patients have cell-free circulating DNA that originated from necrosis, autophagy, or mitotic catastrophe. Cell-free circulating DNA levels were measured by a quantitative real-time PCR method with a set of primers targeted to amplify the consensus ALU apoptotic versus necrotic origin. Prostate cancer patients before and 3 months after diagnosis showed cell-free circulating DNA released at apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, all patients after 6 months demonstrated DNA released at non-apoptotic cell. The principal source of cell-free circulating DNA is of apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death. However, during treatment, this feature could change. Therefore, the study of cell-free circulating DNA would be important to follow the evolution of the disease during the treatment.
KeywordsProstate Cancer Cell-free circulating DNA DNA integrity ALU sequence
- 1.Instituto Nacional de Câncer-INCA Tipos de Câncer–Próstata http://www2.inca.gov.br/wps/wcm/connect/tiposdecancer/site/home/prostata. Accessed 23 Oct 2012.
- 2.Canadian Cancer Society http://www.cancer.ca/. Accessed 23 Oct 2012.
- 3.Souto CAV, Fonseca GN, Carvalhal GF, Barata HS, Souto JCS, Berger M. Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia–Câncer de Próstata: Marcadores Tumorais. 2006 http://www.projetodiretrizes.org.br/5_volume/09-CancerMar.pdf. Accessed 23 Oct 2012.
- 5.Naoyuki U, Armando EG, Suzanne HH, Farin A, Taku N, Silvana M, et al. Prediction of breast tumor progression by integrity of free circulating DNA in serum. J Clin Oncol. 2006;26:4270–6.Google Scholar
- 6.Naoyuki U, Armando EG, Suzanne HH, Farin A, Taku N, Silvana M, et al. Increased integrity of free circulating DNA in sera of patients with colorectal or periampullary cancer: direct quantitative PCR for ALU repeats. 2006;52(6):1062–9Google Scholar
- 17.Coelho PG, Marsicano SR, Delgado PO, Pinto JLF, Sant'Anna AVL, Yabiko MY, et al. Chemotherapy induces genomic instability in oral mucosal cells of women with breast cancer. J Solid Tumors. 2012;2:10–4.Google Scholar
- 18.Birch L, English CA, O’Donoghue K, Barigye O, Fisk NM, Keer JT. Accurate and robust quantification of circulating fetal and total DNA in maternal plasma from 5 to 41 weeks of gestation. Clin Chem. 2005;21(2):320–1.Google Scholar