Tumor Biology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 17–22 | Cite as

HPV typing and its relation with apoptosis in cervical carcinoma from Indian population

  • M. Shabbir Alam
  • Asgar Ali
  • Syed Jafar Mehdi
  • Nisreen Sherif Alyasiri
  • Zakia Kazim
  • Swaraj Batra
  • A. K. Mandal
  • M. Moshahid Alam RizviEmail author
Research Article


Definite progress in understanding the etiology of cervical cancer has been achieved, and some types of human papillomavirus have been established as the central cause of cervical cancer worldwide. This study investigates the human papillomavirus infection and its correlation with apoptosis and clinicopathologic characteristics in squamous cell carcinoma of uterine cervix. Human papillomavirus typing was done by type-specific primers for high-risk human papillomavirus using standard polymerase chain reaction method. Programmed cell death (apoptosis) was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin–dUTP nick end labeling assay. Human papillomavirus infection in tissue biopsy of cervical carcinoma was detected in 131 of 135 (97%) cases. Among the positive cases of human papillomavirus, 123 (94%) cases were human papillomavirus type 16, and five (4%) cases were human papillomavirus type 18. Out of 135 cervical carcinoma cases, 81 (60%) cases showed presence of apoptosis. The phenomenon of apoptosis was seen slightly higher in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (40% in squamous cell carcinoma and 33% in adenocarcinoma). The human papillomavirus infection in cervical cancer might not play any role in the occurrence of apoptosis.


HPV Apoptosis Cervical cancer TUNEL assay 



The authors acknowledge University Grants Commission (UGC), Government of India, New Delhi, for providing the fund for this study.


  1. 1.
    International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, vol 64. Human papillomaviruses. Lyon: IARC; 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schiffman M. New epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87:1345–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Franco EL, Rohan TE, Villa LL. Epidemiologic evidence and human papillomavirus infection as a necessary cause of cervical cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91:506–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics 2002. CA Cancer J Clin. 2005;55:74–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    American Cancer Society. Facts & figures 2009. Atlanta: ACS; 2009.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin DM. GLOBOCAN 2002: cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. In: IARC cancer base no. 5, version 2.0 IARC: Lyon; 2004.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    National Cancer Registry Programme. Consolidated report of hospital based cancer registries 2001–2003. ICMR: New Delhi; 2007.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM, et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189:12–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lazo PA. The molecular genetics of cervical carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1999;80:2008–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Schlecht NF, Kulaga S, Robitaille J, et al. Persistent human papillomavirus infection as a predictor of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. JAMA. 2001;286:3106–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moscicki AB, Hills N, Shiboski S, et al. Risks for incident human papillomavirus infection and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions development in young females. JAMA. 2001;285:2995–3002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Woodman CB, Collins S, Winter H, et al. Natural history of cervical human papillomavirus infection in young women: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet. 2001;357:1831–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ferenczy A, Franco EL. Persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia. Lancet Oncol. 2002;3:11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bosch F, Manos M, Munoz N, et al. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in cervical cancer: a worldwide perspective. International biological study on cervical cancer (IBSCC) Study Group. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1995;87(11):796–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Current status of development of prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus infection. Report of a technical meeting, Geneva, 16–18 February 1999. Department of Vaccines and Biologicals, World Health Organization, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, Geneva. 1999.
  16. 16.
    Galloway DA. Is vaccination against human papillomavirus a possibility? Lancet. 1998;351(suppl III):22–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lowy DR, Schiller JT. Papillomaviruses: prophylactic vaccine prospects. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1423:M1–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benedet JL, Bender H, Jones III H, et al. FIGO staging classifications and clinical practice guidelines in the management of gynecologic cancers. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2000;70:209–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sambrook J, Russell DW. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. 3rd ed. Plainview: Cold Spring Harbor Lab; 2001.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Das BC, Sharma JK, Gopalkrishna V, et al. A high frequency of human papilloma virus DNA sequences in cervical carcinomas of Indian women as revealed by Southern blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol. 1992;36:239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Preacher KJ. Calculation for the chi-square test: an interactive calculation tool for chi-square tests of goodness of fit and independence [computer software]. 2001.
  22. 22.
    Bosch FX, Lorincz A, Munoz N, et al. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2002;55:244–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    zur Hausen H. Papillomaviruses and cancer: from basic studies to clinical application. Nat Rev. 2002;2:342–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Woodman CB, Collins SI, Young LS. The natural history of cervical HPV infection: unresolved issues. Nat Rev. 2007;7:11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mates JM, Segura JA, Alonso FJ, et al. Intracellular redox status and oxidative stress: implications for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Arch Toxicol. 2008;82:273–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Oh JM, Kim SH, Cho EA, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis by stimulating ubiquitin–proteasome-mediated degradation of Bax in human cervical cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31(3):402–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kilic G, Cardillo M, Ozdemirli M, et al. Human papillomavirus 18 oncoproteins E6 and E7 enhance irradiation- and chemotherapeutic agent-induced apoptosis in p53 and Rb mutated cervical cancer cell lines. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1999;20(3):167–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Karl T, Seibert N, Stöhr M, et al. Sulindac induces specific degradation of the HPV oncoprotein E7 and causes growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2007;245(1–2):103–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fidan I, Bozdayi G, Rota S, et al. The relationship between cervical human papillomavirus infection and apoptosis. Clin Invest Med. 2008;31(3):E168–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM) 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Shabbir Alam
    • 1
    • 2
  • Asgar Ali
    • 1
  • Syed Jafar Mehdi
    • 1
  • Nisreen Sherif Alyasiri
    • 1
  • Zakia Kazim
    • 1
  • Swaraj Batra
    • 3
  • A. K. Mandal
    • 4
  • M. Moshahid Alam Rizvi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Genome Biology Lab, Department of BiosciencesJamia Millia Islamia, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar MargNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical SciencesJazan UniversityJizanKSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyLNJP/MAMC CampusNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PathologyMAMC CampusNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations