Expression of C-reactive protein and cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma: correlation with pathological parameters in 110 patients
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- Ali, S., Yin-Goen, Q., Johnson, T.V. et al. Tumor Biol. (2011) 32: 375. doi:10.1007/s13277-010-0130-9
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C-reactive protein is produced in response to cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6. It is known that increased plasma IL-6 levels induce increased hepatic and intratumoral production of C-reactive protein. Cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 is induced by various stimuli, including inflammation and various growth factors. Expression of these two markers has not been well studied in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. The objective of this study is to correlate the expression of C-reactive protein and cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma with pathologic parameters. A search of the surgical pathology and consultation files at our institution was performed for nephrectomy specimens with clear cell renal cell carcinoma from 2007 to 2008. Immunohistochemical stains for C-reactive protein and cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 were performed. Staining intensity was graded as 0, 1+, 2+, and 3+. The staining intensity was then correlated with pathologic stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade for each case. A total of 110 cases were identified. Strong expression of C-reactive protein was associated with higher Fuhrman nuclear grade and pathologic stage, and the strength of correlation was statistically significant (p = 0.01 and p = 0.001), respectively. However, cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 expression did not show statistically significant correlation with both pathologic stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade (p = 0.1 and p = 0.15), respectively. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date correlating the expression of both C-reactive protein and cyclooxygenase enzyme-2 in tissue with pathologic parameters in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which could have significant prognostic and therapeutic implications.