Molecular & Cellular Toxicology

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 149–158 | Cite as

Testicular antioxidant mechanism of cultivated wild ginseng extracts

  • Seon Ok
  • Jae Seon KangEmail author
  • Kang Min KimEmail author
Original Paper


Recent studies have reported the relationship between reduced sperm counts and male infertility. The effects of cultivated wild ginseng extracts, which include ginsenosides, on cellular antioxidant activities were studied in testicular cells and animal models. In a study of rats, the weight of testis-right (15.38%, P<0.05) and testis-left (16.98%, P<0.05) in group D (cultivated wild ginseng extracts with bisphenol A) increased in comparison with group A (only bisphenol A). Reactive oxygen species of TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cells treated with bisphenol A significantly increased, by 36-41%, compared to the controls. Cultivated wild ginseng extracts at 10 and 25 μg/mL significantly increased the expression of catalase in TM3 cells, and catalase, superoxide dismutase 1, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in TM4 cells. The induction of expression of catalase and superoxide dismutase 1 by cultivated wild ginseng extracts in rats occurs via the ERK and p38 pathways. Cultivated wild ginseng extracts also ameliorated the histopathological changes induced by bisphenol A in the testis.


Cultivated wild ginseng extract Antioxidant Bisphenol A Testicular toxicity 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Toxicogenomics and Toxicoproteomics and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of pharmacy and Brain Busan 21 ProgramKyungsung UniversityBusanKorea

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