Auralization of air vehicle noise for community noise assessment

  • Stephen A. RizziEmail author
  • Abhishek K. Sahai
Review Paper


This paper serves as an introduction to air vehicle noise auralization and documents the current state-of-the-art. Auralization of flyover noise considers the source, path, and receiver as a part of a time marching simulation. Two approaches are offered; a time domain approach performs sound synthesis followed by propagation, while a frequency domain approach performs propagation followed by sound synthesis. Source noise description methods are offered for isolated and installed propulsion system and airframe noise sources for a wide range of air vehicles. Methods for synthesis of broadband, discrete tones, steady and unsteady periodic, and aperiodic sources are presented, and propagation methods and receiver considerations are discussed. Auralizations applied to vehicles ranging from large transport aircraft to small unmanned aerial systems demonstrate current capabilities.


Auralization Aircraft community noise 

List of symbols


Tonal amplitude


Speed of sound (m/s)


Frequency (Hz)


Mach number


Pressure (Pa)


Range (m)


Specific gas constant for air (J/(kg K))


Temperature (K)


Time (s)


Horizontal wind speed (m/s)


Adiabatic index


Acoustic wavelength (m)


Phase angle (radians)


Polar emission angle (radians)



German Aerospace Center (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt)


Institute of Aerospace Systems (Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrt), RWTH Aachen


National Aeronautics and Space Administration


National Aerospace Center (Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium)


French Aerospace Lab (Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales)


Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule


Supplementary material

13272_2019_373_MOESM1_ESM.wav (2.5 mb)
Audio Sample 1 Auralization of short-range commercial transport reference design on approach. (WAV 2512 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM2_ESM.wav (2.4 mb)
Audio Sample 2 Auralization of short-range commercial transport minimum tonality design on approach. (WAV 2506 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM3_ESM.wav (861 kb)
Audio Sample 3 Auralization of a flyover of a synchronized 12-propeller aircraft. (WAV 861 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM4_ESM.wav (861 kb)
Audio Sample 4 Auralization of a flyover of a spread frequency 12-propeller aircraft. (WAV 861 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM5_ESM.wav (3.4 mb)
Audio Sample 5 Auralization of a flyover of a contrarotating open-rotor propulsor at a thrust setting of 13,741 lbf. (WAV 3445 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM6_ESM.wav (3.4 mb)
Audio Sample 6 Auralization of a flyover of a contrarotating open-rotor propulsor at a thrust setting of 14,650 lbf. (WAV 3445 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM7_ESM.wav (431 kb)
Audio Sample 7 Synthesized helicopter source noise at a shallow emission angle. (WAV 430 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM8_ESM.wav (1.1 mb)
Audio Sample 8 Recorded flyover of a DJI Phantom 2 quadcopter. (WAV 1171 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM9_ESM.wav (4.2 mb)
Audio Sample 9 Auralization of a quadcopter using baseline flight dynamics model. (WAV 4298 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM10_ESM.wav (4.2 mb)
Audio Sample 10 Auralization of a quadcopter using modified flight dynamics model with body and rotor drag. (WAV 4298 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM11_ESM.wav (4.2 mb)
Audio Sample 11 Auralization of a quadcopter using modified flight dynamics model with drag and turbulence. (WAV 4298 KB)
13272_2019_373_MOESM12_ESM.wav (4.2 mb)
Audio Sample 12 Auralization of a quadcopter using modified flight dynamics model with drag, turbulence, and manufacturing error. (WAV 4298 KB)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NASA Langley Research CenterHamptonUSA
  2. 2.ADSE Consulting and EngineeringHoofddorpThe Netherlands

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